callimachus aetia summary

Each of the books of the Aitia would have filled one papyrus roll. FREE Shipping. (1) The Florentine scholia or Scholia Florentina (PSI 1219 = Mertens-Pack3 196) is the name given to a second-third century CE papyrus roll containing scholia for book I. The following discrete narratives can be located in Book I: (1) Callimachus begins by asking the Muses for an explanation of a Parian custom of sacrificing to the Graces without garlands or flutes. It would have been relocated by copiests or editors at the end of the four books at a later date. Scholia (commentary) and Diegeseis (explanatory narratives) by ancient commentators, with English translation, Greek text, English translation, and hand-made vocabulary lists giving all uncommon words in full dictionary form; explanatory notes by Prof. Susan Stephens. But the line end as part of a lemma occurs on the London scholium, and rereading of that scholium originally cast doubt on Pfeiffer’s restoration. and Erato (fr. 181 = Mertens-Pack3 197) contains a commentary on the opening of the poem and covers frr. Callimachus’ Aitia was the most influential of his poems in antiquity, particularly so for Augustan poetry. But I shall go on to the prose (?) There are numerous intertextual parallels between Apollonius’ epic and the Aitia. Papyrus finds show that it was widely read until late antiquity and perhaps well into the Byzantine period. callimachus hymns 1 3 theoi classical texts library. It also belongs to a series of aitia that relate stories about athletic events. Berenice II was the daughter of Magas of Cyrene, and married Euergetes in 246 after a long betrothal. Although a considerable portion of the Greek text has survived, the poem is partially reconstructed on the basis of Catullus 66, which is translation of the Lock into Latin. It contains portions from Hymns 1-4, 6, the Aitia, books III-IV and various lyrics. Thus ελ[ belong to the verb that is missing from the phrase, and παῖς ἅτε requires it be Callimachus speaking in the first person. The Aitia itself has not been transmitted to us intact. We argued that the meaning would then be “I told my story bit by bit,     like a child.”  We were also attracted to a past tense because, given Callimachus’ advanced age, the critique of the Telchines would seem to leveled against something already done (e.g., line 4: ἤνυσα) . Linus was later torn apart by dogs. The most important of the papyrus or parchment finds are as follows (in roughly chronological order): (1) The Lille papyrus (= Mertens-Pack3 207.3) was copied within a generation of Callimachus’ death. Et ce travail … [ix]  It is worth considering to what degree Callimachus' poem succeeded in opening up elegy to permit a greater range of topics than had been previously attempted. (11) Nothing is known of this story beyond its subject, Androgeos, the son of Minos, who protected the stern of ships. The Scholia Florentina provide the outline for this section: in his dream Callimachus engages in conversation with the Muses who answer his questions about various phenomena and events. It was an elegiac poem consisting of narratives, ranging in length from no more than a few lines (e.g., The poem recounts how Berenice II dedicated a lock of her hair in the temple of Arsinoe Aphrodite at Cape Zephyrium upon the safe return of her husband, Ptolemy III, from the Third Syrian War. 20.2258 (= Mertens-Pack3 205.1) is a sixth or seventh century papyrus codex that must have held a collected edition of Callimachus. Scholia (commentary) and Diegeseis (explanatory narratives) by ancient commentators, with English translation, Greek text, English translation, and hand-made vocabulary lists giving all uncommon words in full dictionary form; explanatory notes by Prof. Susan Stephens. This has led to the thesis (essentially Pfeiffer’s), now commonly accepted, that Callimachus reissued or reedited the Aetia late in his life and added the prologue, now known as Against the Telchines, to the four-book edition. Because Rudolf Pfeiffer and other scholars believed that Apollonius must have known and used Books I-II in his Argonautica, these books are usually taken to be as much as 25 years earlier, and thus assigned to a date around 270 BCE. (2) Papyri of Callimachus began to come to light in the late nineteenth century, most notably the fragments discovered by Grenfell and Hunt and published in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. 1011 = fr. This was Theudotus, who bears the speaking name of “given to the god”. The appearance of these fragments, which greatly increase our knowledge of the opening of the third book of the Aetia,2 has been followed by Along with the poet as framing narrator, a rudimentary temporal trajectory is in place, beginning with tales of Heracles and of the Argonauts at the opening of Book I and ending with contemporary events in Alexandria, namely, the dedication of Berenice’s lock in the recently built temple of Aphrodite-Arsinoe, in Book IV. [ii] For the discovery and assembly of his texts from book and papyrus fragments see Lehnus 2011, Pontani 2011, and Massimilla 2011. The Lighthouse was built between 297-85. the unity of callimachus hymn to artemis the journal of. Of contemporaries, Callimachus commends Aratus. Shorter words are not possible: although Callimachus will postpone δέ until after the article + noun unit (as in line 12: ἡ μεγάλη δ’), if the article αἱ is restored in line 16, it can only be long; but the visible α[ must be the final syllable of the preceding metron and thus necessarily short. After this happened for the third time, Ceyx consulted the oracle of Apollo and was advised to marry his daughter to Acontius instead. 2168 + P. Berol. 35-40 also alludes to Simonides and the Scopadae in the context of honoring poets. In addition to the Aitia, his poetry included hymns, epigrams, iambic poetry (Iambi and the Ibis), a hexameter poem of about 1,000 lines on an early exploit of Theseus and the bull of Marathon (Hecale); victory odes; and encomia of kings and queens. [vii]  It was an elegiac poem consisting of narratives, ranging in length from no more than a few lines (e.g., Busiris) to well over a hundred (e.g., the Victory of Berenice, Acontius and Cydippe, the Lock of Berenice). The rest of his poems have been reduced to numerous citations in later Greek lexica and handbooks or, beginning in the late nineteenth century, have been discovered on papyrus.[ii]. Callimachus' Aetia, written in Alexandria in the third century BC, was an important and influential poem which insp . Another organizing strategy that Callimachus used to great effect was parallel tales (e.g., the aition of Phrygius and Pieria in book III is a love story that seems to resemble the earlier tale of Acontius and Cydippe or the two separate stories about statues of Hera in book IV). Example 7. Other discoveries of papyrus scholia with lemmata or commentaries with glosses have helped in the restoration of individual lines. 11629A+B + 13417A+B (= Mertens-Pack3 195) are fragments from a third century CE papyrus codex containing portions of Aetia, Books I, III, lyrics, and the Hecale. See above for P. Knox’s suggestion that this epilogue originally belonged to the first two books only. [iv] Epigrammatists from a variety of locations also achieved prominence during this period. Although broken in many places it provides valuable information about the order and contents of Aitia III-IV. This Callimachus travels the Mediterranean, pays homage to Athena and Zeus, develops erotic fixations, practices funerary commemoration, and brings fresh gifts for the cult of Artemis. This has stimulated discussion that Arsinoe, Ptolemy II's second wife, may have been included in this part of the poem or even that the first two books may have been dedicated to her as books III-IV appear to have been dedicated to Ptolemy III's queen Berenice II.[xiv]. (5) Berlin Commentary (P. Berol. Studies of epyllion have largely been limited to texts in dactylic hexameter. But he lived and wrote much of his poetry in Alexandria, a city that had been founded within a generation of his birth. The most important of his prose texts was the Pinakes, a comprehensive listing of earlier Greek literature by genre that included biographies of each author, citing their works with initial words or first lines. Epilogue  P. Oxy. It recalls the destruction of the house of the Scopadae, who once dishonored the poet. Callimachus: The Hymns - Ebook written by Susan A. Stephens. At the time Callimachus wrote, of course, these lines could only have stood at the end of a roll, and thus could have only signaled a change in poetic interests. It contains the opening of Book III with interlinear comments. When she read out the inscription, she was then bound by her unwitting oath. Greek and Roman Arabic Germanic 19th-Century American Renaissance Richmond Times Italian Poetry. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Lond. It contains portions from Hymns 1–4, 6, the Aetia, Books III–IV and various lyrics. To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes. Apollonius of Rhodes, whose surviving poem is the epic Argonautica, is thought to have been a native Alexandrian and a slightly younger contemporary of Callimachus. Introduction - Callimachus Aetia. Callimachus was born in Cyrene in c.310, and moved to Alexandria, where he lived at the court of the Ptolemaic king Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a great patron of the arts, and, later, queen Berenice II, wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes. At the festival the youthful participants wore garlands of bay, hence the sacrifice was called the Daphnephoria. He concludes the whole with a précis of Xenomedes' work, particularly, the fact that he recounted the death of the Telchines and Demonax who foolishly disregarded the gods. Although we might expect that this is a story about the more famous Linus who was a musician, in fact this Linus was the infant son of Psamathe and Apollo. Word Counts by … Harder has suggested that fr. These fragmentary sources are described in detail by Annette Harder in her 2012 edition, vol. Because so much of the interpretation of the Aetia is dependent upon potential textual restorations, the bulk of the scholarship has been concerned with reading and reconstructing the many fragments. It was heavy with learning but diversified by passages of… as the close of Book II.[xxii]. [xxv]. 181 = Mertens-Pack3 197) contains a commentary on the opening of the poem and covers frr. ), Calliope (fr. One of Odysseus' crew, who had been left on their shore, was subsequently killed. Certain elegiac poems, however, are similar to these epyllia in style and theme. Each text represents some combination of the following: (1) Before the discovery of papyri, the Aitia was known only by a handful of book fragments: these could be lines quoted in other ancient authors like Athenaeus or Strabo, or in sources like the scholia to Homer or Pindar, or in ancient lexica like the Etymologicum magnum, Etymologicum Genuinum, or the Suda. Books III and IV must fall early in the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes, because the first poem of book III commemorates the victory of Berenice II in the four-horse chariot race at the Nemean games (either in 245, 243, or 241 BCE). This ‘new’ aesthetic (which might seem less novel if we had the poetry of the 4th cent.) They exploit aetiology far more than do their literary predecessors as a way of defining the relationship of the past to the present and of making the foreign more accessible. the unity of callimachus hymn to artemis the journal of. When her father, Ceyx, subsequently attempted to arrange a suitable marriage for her, she became sick before the wedding day. 43.56 Pf. Although he was never made chief librarian, he was responsible for producing a bibliographic survey based upon the contents of the Library. (2) The London Scholia (P. Lit. Harder accepts the restoration but takes the sense to be “turn over in one’s mind.” The second (ἐλ[αύνω) was Friedlander’s conjecture and seems to be supported by by AP 14.121.11,       where Metrodorus is clearly imitating the Aitia prologue. Papyrus finds show that it was widely read until late antiquity and perhaps well into the Byzantine period. Ships from and sold by Amazon.com. Either a verb beginning with ελ[ or beginning with λ[ + a temporal augment may be             restored. To provide readers of Greek and Latin with high interest texts equipped with media, vocabulary, and grammatical, historical, and stylistic notes. His prose works on paradoxography, on rivers, nymphs, birds, and winds, on foundations of islands and cities, and their name changes are all reflected in his Aitia.[iii]. 1. It may have been parallel to the opening of book III, with its aition of the Nemean games, but almost nothing survives. The dating of books I and II is not secure. It included information on the sources that Callimachus used for his individual narratives. It was four “books” (papyrus rolls) in length and is estimated to have contained about 4,000 to 6,000 lines in total. But is the poet's old age a genuine biographical detail or merely a poetic persona constructed to contrast with the youthful Callimachus of the following section? (5) Occasionally an ancient source has summarized the plot of an aition: for example, Aristaenetus has provided a summary of Acontius and Cydippe that has allowed a number of fragments to be placed in some order, and his summary of  Phrygius and Pieria provides information that is not found elsewhere. (2) Although all of the poems are written in elegiac meter, Callimachus includes material that imitates other genres:  the aition on the Tomb of Simonides behaves like a funerary epigram, the Lock of Berenice II expands on the form of the dedicatory epigram, while at least one story, Acontius and Cydippe, is apparently erotic. Minos learning about the death of Androgeos was featured in the first aition in book I. There are two Loeb Library editions of Callimachus: Callimachus and Lycophron, translated by A. W. Mair (1921), and Aetia, Iambic, Lyric Poems, Hecale, Minor Epic and Elegiac Poems, translated with notes by C. A. Trypanis (1958). Callimachus was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya. 5 heroes, but like a child I roll forth a short tale, though the decades of my years are not few. 112 Pf. He was credited with more than 800 books, but, apart from six hymns and some 60 epigrams, only fragments survive. Example 8. The latter seems to have elements in common with Callimachus’ Hymn to Delos, 275-99, which recreates the first offerings brought to Delian Apollo by the Hyperboreans. Callimachus (ca. Example 4. 177 Pf.) Links to the database Trismegistos for full information about the papyrological sources. is a papyrus codex that contains the end of the Aitia and the beginning of the Iambi. [v] The easiest edition to consult is Austin-Bastianini 2002 and the site maintained by the Center for Hellenic Studies: http://chs.harvard.edu/CHS/article/display/1341. (5) A hunter, boasting of his skill, dedicated the head of a boar he had killed to himself instead of Artemis. Each is dependent on a different set of arguments:  the first (ἑλ[ίσσω) means “roll out” or “roll around” and was originally proposed with ἔπος δ’ ἐπὶ τυτθὸν to mean “roll out my writing (ἔπος) in a small compass”, i.e., write a short poem, where the image of rolling         would allude to a papyrus roll as the material of composition. The use of such explanatory tales or mini-origin myths functions to domesticate the unknown, by explaining and/or renaming it in terms of the familiar. The three most plausible conjectures are: ἑλ[ίσσω, ἐλ[αύνω, and ἔλεξα. Catullus' translation is not exact, however, and should be used with caution.[xxvii]. 129) by Callimachus Hardcover $28.00. Material from the opening recurs in several subsequent aitia. Aetia Aetia: Book I l (Against the Telchines) (I know that) the Telchines, a who are ignorant and no friends of the Muse, grumble at my poetry, because I did not accomplish one continuous poem of many thousands of lines on . Callimachus, in the story of Acontius and Cydippe in his Aetia, juxtaposes the reference to the continuity of Acontius’ line with the eventful history of Acontius’ island of Chios, thus raising the question how stable the aetion can actually be. D’Alessio prints the supplement, though most editors do not. 112 Pf., which has been taken to be an epilogue to the whole of the Aitia, is more likely to have ended Books I-II, which probably appeared several years if not decades before the last two books. The second line of the prologue: νήιδες οἳ Μούσης οὐκ ἐγένετο φίλοι has been quoted in several ancient sources including Choeroboscus, Hephaestion, and Dionysius Thrax. Lond. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. Associated with Sicily and Cos, he was among the earliest Hellenistic poets, and his residence in Alexandria most likely belongs between the 280s and the 260s. Even though the 1992 publication of a fragmentary elegy on the Battle of Platea P. Oxy. The most important of these writers were Asclepiades of Samos and Posidippus of Pella. Though this must be donewith caution, since Catullus’ poetic agendas did not necessarily coincide with Callimachus’ (see Bing ). (3) The writing of aitia seems to have absorbed the imaginations of the Hellenistic poets. callimachus the hymns book 2015 worldcat. When Ino, driven mad by Hera, jumped into the sea with her son, Melicertes, his body was washed up on the shores of Tenedos, where an altar was placed in his honor. Show Summary Details Quick Reference. (6) P. Oxy. 178, then a seemingly younger Callimachus is again present, this time in Alexandria, at a symposium; at the opening of Book III, he speaks the poetic praise of Berenice. Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. His insistence on his own poetics as ‘new’ in combination with his compositions in multiple genres led to frequent imitation among later poets of both Greece and Rome. Callimachus of Cyrene (c. 310 BC – c. 240 BC) was a Greek poet, critic and bibliographer, of Libyan birth. He followed Zenodotus as head of the Alexandrian Library. In telling the story, however, Callimachus appears to have shifted the focus from the heroic to the details of Heracles' encounter with a peasant named Molorchus with whom he took shelter, and much of the poem is his conversation with Molorchus. According to the Florentine scholia this aition included a discussion of the various traditions concerning the birth of the Graces. Translated by Mair, A. W. & G. R. Loeb Classical Library Volume 129. 1, 7, 17, 18, 115, 117. (4) The subject is Limonis, the daughter of Hippomenes of Athens. If the epigram is rightly placed at the end of Book IV, he signs off by claiming that he is moving to new genres (see below). It was only when codices came into vogue round the third century CE that all of Callimachus’ poems could have been collected into one edition. (3) A story about the pledge to Apollo by the Liparians to sacrifice their most courageous warrior after the battle. hymns summary enotes. (7) This provides an explanation of why Isindians were excluded from Ionian sacrifices, namely, because once upon a time an Isindian had killed a guest. Ashes from the pyre were said to have divided into two heaps, indicating that even in death the brothers could not be reconciled. Various ancient synopses and commentaries are of great help in establishing the order and number of the individual aitia, though these too are fragmentary. Two others take as their subjects the statue of Apollo at Delphi (fr. [xix] For the links between elegy and symposium, see Bowie 1986. The poet says “his decades are not few” with the result that scholars have assumed the Aitia itself, or at the very least this opening section, must have been written in Callimachus' old age. 80 (Phrygius and Pieria) has been restored as: ἔνν]επες ὀφ[θαλμο]ῖς ἔμπαλι κ[λιν]ομέν[ο]ι[ς, on the basis of Aristaenetus 1.15.44: τὸ πρόσωπον ἐξ αἰδοῦς ἀποκλίνασα. A roll of more than a hundred epigrams of the latter, datable to the late third century bce, was published in 2001. Housman’s conjecture is bolstered by the fact that the diminutive           ἀηδονίδες does occur in Callimachus’ Hymn 5.94, and ἀηδόνες in Ep. a The whole work was made up of some 7000 lines, but the length of the individual aetia, or causes, varied greatly. In fact, Apollonius' poem ends where Callimachus begins. to this poem, arguing that Molorchus's slaying of the mice who were eating him out of house and home was a tale within the larger aition and functioned as a humorous parallel to Heracles’ slaying of the Nemean lion. In evaluating editorial supplements readers should be guided by the following rule of thumb: if the syntax of the line or lines is clear and uncontroversial, then the grammatical shape of the restoration can be trusted as well as the parameters of the restoration even if there is editorial disagreement about the exact word or words. [xv] The thought is echoed in Catullus c. 1.10: plus uno maneat perenne saeclo. Although the Aetia was very well represented in papyrus fragments (currently the number is 37), some of which are quite substantial (80+ lines), the text in its entirety has not survived. (5) The story of Acontius and Cydippe. He identifies himself as a Cyrenean. ; Musaeus: Hero and Leander (Loeb Classical … by Callimachus Hardcover $28.00. 2079) was discovered, about six letters were missing from the opening of lines. (2) Although all of the poems are written in elegiac meter, Callimachus includes material that imitates other genres: the aition on the Tomb of Simonides behaves like a funerary epigram; the Lock of Berenice II expands on the form of the dedicatory epigram; while at least one story, Acontius and Cydippe, is apparently erotic. Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary. 7. This is a deliberate reminiscence of Hesiod's poetic initiation in the Theogony. The story of Ino and Melecertes is part of the prehistory of the Argonauts. Accounts of Callimachus in English are extremely limited and sometimes contradictory. G.-B. As new papyrus finds from this poem are published, they are inventoried on the following websites: the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), Trismegistus (http://www.trismegistos.org/ldab/) and Mertens-Pack3 (http://promethee.philo.ulg.ac.be/cedopal/). (2) The London Scholia (P. Lit. callimachus hymns 1 to zeus loeb classical library. The Aetia has not survived intact but as fragments of papyrus and parchment. Consensus now regards book III to open with the Victoria Berenices and book IV to end with the Lock of Berenice. (6) P. Oxy. callimachus the hymns 3 / 69. 7.22 Pf.) [x]  This has led to the thesis (essentially Pfeiffer's), now commonly accepted, that Callimachus reissued or reedited the Aitia late in his life and added the prologue, now known as Against the Telchines, to the four-book edition. All editors adopt Wilamowitz’s line 29 of the prologue: τῷ πιθόμη]ν, “I obeyed him”. He seems to have been born around 305 BCE and, judging from his poetic subjects, he seems to have died sometime after 240. The aition applies a story told both about Spartans and about Alexander to a Roman. There are few verifiable facts about Callimachus’ life, and much of what the ancient testimonia record is inference based on his writings. Various ancient synopses and commentaries are of great help in establishing the order and number of the individual Aetia, though these too are fragmentary. Therefore, each of the texts printed on this site will have gone through a layered process of reconstruction, and a number of decisions about what to print. Les deux volumes que présente ici Annette Harder sont une somme monumentale pour une oeuvre de Callimaque qui l’était tout autant, même si nous n’en pouvons aujourd’hui que trop déplorer l’état fragmentaire. . (2) PSI 9.1092 (= Mertens-Pack3 214) is a first century BCE roll that contained the Aitia, book IV; it is the major source of the Lock of Berenice. The following aition is a doublet. 43 Pf. Although broken in many places it provides valuable information about the order and contents of Aetia III–IV. Only 3 left in stock (more on the way). portrays Callimachus as repeating to the Muses what he heard at a symposium (lines 12-7), Zetzel has extrapolated the following organizing principle of book II:  Callimachus himself now recollecting a series of stories that he heard at Pollis' symposium as part of his conversation with the Muses. Must have held a collected edition of Callimachus hymn to artemis the journal of, 4.1717-30 some of features! From the opening recurs in several subsequent Aitia as their subjects the statue of Apollo at Delphi ( fr ]... ’ poem both of these writers were Asclepiades of callimachus aetia summary and Posidippus of Pella Clio! 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