Limitations of traditional international division of labor theories: Since the 1980s, global trade and production have witnessed fast development and the implications of the international division of labor and trade have changed significantly. is the most influential. These changes are discussed in more detail below, but may be summarized briefly as involving a reduction in the proportion of funding received in the form of governmental grants, and increases in the importance of fee income, research grants, and contracts. Income that is saved is not used to purchase consumption goods and services, implying that the demand for these goods and services will be less than the supply. Moses (1958) introduced a new classical theory that integrates location theory and production theory. Traditional division of labor and specialization theories laid the foundation for the GPN framework and its major precursors. According to new classical economics, the degree of a country’s involvement in GPNs can also be explained by the level of division of labor and transaction efficiency. The scale, scope, and depth of the division of labor within GPNs are determined by the comparison between the marginal benefit and marginal transaction cost of the division of labor. GPNs emerge after national production networks because international trade incurs additional transaction costs compared with domestic trade. The school believes this because the consumer’s aim is customer satisfaction, while the company’s goal is profit maximization. Malthus’ theory did not sufficiently account for technological development, which changed the progression rate in food production; however, his message regarding the relationship between population and food is coming back to the fore in the current environmental crisis due to the problems it causes both in food production and in population dynamics. The eclectic paradigm holds that FDI is related to the host country’s location advantages and is consistent with MNCs’ strategic objectives. The assumption of consistency is also called the assumption of connectedness. These changes have been characterized by Slaughter and Leslie as creating a new form of academic capitalism, by which they mean that universities, including public universities, are now directly involved, at all levels, in attempting to secure external monies in a competitive marketplace, and do so on the basis of whether or not given activities are likely to be profitable. As transaction efficiency increases, domestic division of labor advances and some lead firms begin to create national production networks and introduce cooperation with other firms at home. A model of conflict based on the unequal spatial distribution of negative externalities suggests the use of compensation to equalize outcomes. Classical economics, Marxist political economy,2 and neoclassical economics all recognized the role of division of labor in enhancing labor productivity and driving economic growth. A new classical property rights theory is also developed based on this. In 1936, she began building her analysis with a comparison of Marx's theory of underconsumption and Keynes's theory of propensity to consume (1999). However, traditional international division of labor theories have failed to systematically address the issue of intraproduct trade, which stands in stark contrast to the importance of intraproduct international trade to the economy. Malthus, a priest in the Anglican church, is best known for his 1798 work An Essay on the Principle of Population. The most representative economist in this regard is Adam Smith. If transaction efficiency is extremely high, the whole world will be an integrated market due to the full division of labor (Yang and Zhang, 2003). In this situation, real GDP will fall below its natural level because investment expenditures will be less than the level of aggregate saving. Now locational conflict is not primarily about the spatial distribution of activities or land uses nor is it simply about contrasting preferences for various activities in particular locations. It explores technology transfer and spillover, trade in intermediate goods and inputs, trade and economic growth, industrial upgrading, increase in employment, MNCs’ industrial organization, and gains from trade on the microlevel. All rights reserved. GPNs make it possible to put different stages of the production process in different countries so that the benefits of specialization can be fully exploited, that is, helping to promote knowledge building and learning outcomes among all parties involved in the division of labor, improve productivity, achieve increasing returns to scale, and eventually reduce production costs, build the competitiveness of specialized firms, and bring about an increase in economic growth and social welfare. This view countered the Malthusian and neo-Malthusian positions on population growth that took the carrying capacity of the earth and technology as given and predicted that continued population growth would lead to soaring prices for grain, wars, disease, and at best a return to subsistence survival for most people. The latter is particularly important to developing countries including China.1,2, R.W. Isard (1956) proposed regional science in the book Location and Space-Economy. Neoclassical trade theories also build on assumptions such as perfectly competitive market but they address interindustry specialization and international trade from the perspective of factor endowment differences. Statements that Boserup made at times in her writing demonstrate that her views were more complex; she noted, for example, that reversals can occur such as the fall of the Roman Empire (1999). She pointed out that both colonialism and modern development programs had frequently marginalized women from rights that they previously had. The impact of other changes in university financing very strongly depends on the internal organization of universities. Production is viable if the surplus or net output y-x is positive, i.e., the system is able to reproduce itself or to expand. In academic circles they do not occupy the most senior positions and are under-represented in the most prestigious institutions. Cui Fengru, Liu Guitang, in Global Value Chains and Production Networks, 2019. Boserup brought gender into development analysis as an integral factor that has remained central to much subsequent development work. The timing was also good since activism among women was growing and interest in changing public policy was increasing among men and women. The ways in which new departmental incentives to recruit students and maintain teaching quality interact with continuing individual incentives to prioritize research and consultancy have not, however, been studied empirically in any detail to date. When employment of the economy's resources falls below the full employment level, the equilibrium level of real GDP also falls below its natural level. Far from being merely an academic exercise, one's theoretical approach to locational conflict implicates significantly different avenues for its resolution, as discussed in the following section. New classical economics offers a brand new analytical framework, and reorganizes modern economic theories. In response, capital encourages long-running societal processes—the homogenization of space, pervasive ideologies of materialism and consumerism, media manipulation and mass education, and increasing residential mobility, among other contributing factors—which succeed in transforming neighborhoods from communities into commodities and, consequently, transforming labor's attachment to community into an orientation based on protecting neighborhood exchange value (Cox 1981). Mill, the son of James Mill, a friend of Ricardo, took up Jeremy Bentham's theories; Bentham was the founder of utilitarianism, a philosophical system centered around the concept of “utility,” which heavily influenced neoclassical economics, as we will see in Chapter 8. To date, however, the published literature in this area is still small. Despite her awareness of these variations in occupation and time use by gender, Boserup focused on constructing a general view and downplayed the variation among agricultural systems. Aggregate investment will be lower than aggregate saving, implying that equilibrium real GDP will be below its natural level. In his work The Subjection of Women (1869), he proposed giving women the vote, or universal suffrage, and the possibility of their entering the labor market to free them from dependence on their husbands. This can also explain the evolution of MNCs’ efforts to create GPNs. Rational choice theory (RCT) is an axiomatic system that provides a basis for making individual decisions/choices. The thoughts of the classical theory, which was popular in economic education in Great Britain till about the 1870s, concentrated on boosting the economy and economic freedom, emphasizing laissez-faire patterns and free competition. The achievement of the natural level of real GDP is not as simple as Say's Law would seem to suggest. Typical classical trade theories include the theory of absolute advantage proposed by Adam Smith (1776) and the theory of comparative advantage by David Ricardo (1817). Rejecting the view of space as simply a container for action, this approach, influenced by the work of Lefebvre (1991) and others, considers the social and political process through which the meaning and use of space are constructed in particular instances. The continuity assumption is that preferences hold across time and space. Despite their limitations in explaining practical problems, traditional division of labor theories laid a solid foundation for the GPN research system. To benefit as much as possible from the division of labor, the government has to keep improving the economic system to lower various transaction costs, and works to increase specialization and improve the scale of every stage in the division of labor, which in turn leads to a further decrease in transaction costs. Allowing for assumptions of interpersonal variation produces enormous tractability problems (Storm 1990, p. 126). This creates strong incentives for departments to attract and recruit students, especially from lucrative overseas markets, and to concern themselves with their reputation as teaching, as well as research, institutions. She brought in her ideas from the agricultural growth book to identify shifting agriculture with low population density, tools such as the hoe, common property, and women taking an active role in subsistence farming. The theories of the classical school, which dominated economic thinking in Great Britain until about 1870, focused on economic growth and economic freedom, stressing laissez-faire ideas and free competition. Within a structural mode of explanation, negative externalities are not viewed simply as evidence of market imperfections subject to correction but rather are understood as necessary and inevitable consequences of class relations within the process of capital accumulation. The basic proposition is that the division of labor will evolve as transaction efficiency is enhanced and economic development, trade, and market structure changes are the different facets of this evolution process. If only part of the surplus is consumed and the rest is invested, our economy starts the next period with more than x bushels of corn and the system grows. As already noted, a recurrent theme in both academic analysis and public comment on universities is the importance of research, and research publications, for individuals’ career success, and the consequent devaluing of teaching, and especially undergraduate teaching (see, e.g., Ehrenberg et al., 2003). For example, Sanyal and Jones (1982), Hummels (1999), and Deardorff (2001) used the Ricardian model to explain the causes and models of international vertical specialization and trade. William Petty introduced a fundamental distinction between market price and natural priceto facilitate the portrayal of regularities in prices. According to Malthus the solution was certainly not to prefer wars and epidemics (he was a priest, after all! It includes the work of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and many other economists. Neoclassical economics is derived from classical economics with the introduction of marginalism. We will come back to this issue later. Classical economics emerged in the 18th century. Women economists have often written about so-called ‘women's issues such as women's labor force activity and wages, which seemed of little interest to male economists and benefit from a lower level of reward than other fields.’. If the former is greater than the latter, intranetwork division of labor will go deeper and GPNs will continue to develop; if the former is lesser than the latter, intranetwork division of labor and GPNs will tend to shrink. While it is true that the income obtained from producing a certain level of real GDP must be sufficient to purchase that level of real GDP, there is no guarantee that all of this income will be spent. Consistency demands that it be possible for all the decision maker's options to be ranked. In addition, the various theoretical understandings of locational conflict point to substantially different routes for its amelioration or resolution. Hence, aggregate saving need not lead to a reduction in real GDP. They wrote especially about the theory of value, distribution theory and international trade. Therefore, the new theories including intraproduct specialization are yet to become the mainstream of international economics. More recently, a post-structuralist approach has emerged that situates locational conflict within the antagonistic discursive or representational strategies of contending groups vying for control over the use of space, where such control is an expression of political power. Both these countries, in common with many others, operate with a dual-fee policy, in which home students and overseas students pay very different levels of fee (with home students, but not overseas ones, also attracting matching funds from government). They do not win prizes: not one woman has so far received the Nobel Prize for Economics; only exceptionally do they chair associations of economists, both in the USA and in Europe; likewise, their representation on the boards of journals is poor. Given the perceived centrality of the rate of profit in a capitalist economy, for classical political economy it becomes a crucial problem in the theory of economic growth to account for movements in the rate of profit associated with the process of capital accumulation and development of the economy. As a result, the focus of analysis moved from the economic to the political arena, from individual choice to collective action, and from locational decision-making to locational conflict as a politics of turf. Changes in the financing of higher education have provided an opportunity to see whether universities respond in the directions predicted within this framework (Slaughter and Leslie, 1997; Webster and Etzkowitz, 1998; St. John and Parsons, 2004). This analysis would lead one to expect changes in recent years, as students’ fees have come to account for rapidly growing proportions of university expenditure in many countries. In a sense this was a watershed in the development of economics. Standard trade theories mostly focus on the specialization and exchange of final products (Arndt, 1997). They ascribe this to students being most interested in their diploma’s reputation, or brand, rather than what they actually learn; and therefore having interests which are more aligned with those of faculty than has generally been assumed. Countries greatly vary in the extent to which this model reflects their current form of organization; the United States can be seen as one end of the spectrum, whereas in some other countries, developed and developing, there has been rather little such development. The publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776, has been described as "the effective birth of economics as a separate discipline." Also, and perhaps more importantly, it discursively represents squatter families as legitimate occupants of space and, therefore, legitimate participants in the political process. A shared framework is established and the new ideas that challenge classical new economics, such as transaction cost economics, property rights economics, new trade theory, endogenous growth theory, evolutionary economics, information economics, and game theory, can be integrated into a new mainstream school of thought. Locational conflict, in this framework, arises from the fundamental antagonism between labor and capital with respect to neighborhood change. Other economists built on Smith's work to solidify classical economic theory, the dominant school of economic thought through the Great Depression. Understanding conflict as symptomatic of deep underlying structural relations requires the elimination of structural contradictions. Classical economists believe that any unemployment that occurs in the labor market or in other resource markets should be considered voluntary unemployment. The benign interactions between the two brings about dynamic effects of learning and sustained growth. According to new classical economics, the government should be committed to lowering transaction costs through means in two aspects so that more firms are involved in GPNs and sustained economic growth can be achieved. Keynesian economists support deficit spending and controlling the money supply. It originated from classical economics and can be traced back to the classical location theory of Germany. She noted that the gender roles in economic activity were distinct in all the societies she studied and although considered ‘natural’ by members of each group, they varied across cultures—illustrating that the gender roles were constructed socially rather than biological. Although there are differences in current views about what motivates technological change, the conceptualization of technology as endogenous has been a significant contribution to development theory. Definition: The Classical Theory is the traditional theory, wherein more emphasis is on the organization rather than the employees working therein. The complexity, however, showed up more consistently in her multidisciplinary, dynamic approach rather than in addressing issues of non-linearity and variety in development processes. Location advantages include advantages arising from the host country’s factor endowments, such as natural resources, labor, geographical location, etc., as well as advantages in the investment environment, such as political and economic systems, laws, regulations and policies, infrastructure, market capacity, external economies of scale, etc. Of these intraindustry trade theories, the new trade theory of Paul Krugman et al. Another assumption of RCT is that individuals ‘maximize the expected value of their payoff measured on some utility scale’ and that, usually, ‘numerical probabilities can be attached to different eventualities’ (Luce and Raiffa 1957, p. 50). Economists found that locations and places are related to economic processes very early. If aggregate demand falls below aggregate supply due to aggregate saving, suppliers will cut back on their production and reduce the number of resources that they employ. The two types of factors play an important role in the decision-making on FDI locations. GPNs in which MNCs are the main players are in essence a new model of international division of labor and the direct outcome of individual specialization decision-making and division of labor across sectors. For many, this will involve prioritizing research and related activities which bolster their own, and their institutions’, prestige, and, therefore, their future career opportunities. Market prices are jostled by many transient influences that are difficult to theorize about at any abstract level. A classroom environment unfriendly to women, the shortage of female lecturers to act as role models, the examination process, the intensive use of mathematical tools and abstract modeling have also been mentioned; however, the superior examination results of young women in mathematics do not corroborate this last explanation. Keynesian theory asserts that the private sector sometimes makes decisions that harm the economy. The most important change is that more and more countries use their factor endowment and technology to engage in a production process of certain product through international vertical specialization,5 resulting in the so-called intraproduct international specialization, and then intermediate trade on a large scale (intraproduct international trade). Feenstra and Hanson (1996), Arndt (1997), and Deardorff (2001) analyzed international vertical specialization using the H–O model of factor endowment theory. The theories of the classical school, which dominated economic thinking in Great Britain until about 1870, focused on economic growth and economic freedom, stressing laissez-faire ideas and free competition. Classical economic theory was developed shortly after the birth of western capitalism. Political geographers such as Kevin Cox and his students at Ohio State University challenged the assumption of autonomous locational decision-making by recognizing that individual utilities are not independent of the externality effects produced by the locational decisions of others (Cox and McCarthy 1980). The circumstances under which such institutions emerge and succeed, alongside subsidized public-sector provision; the types of degree they offer; their pricing strategies, and the often highly segmented nature of their target student populations, would all appear to be areas in which economics should be able to provide useful insights (Ortmann, 2001; Kraft and Vodopoviec, 2003; Tooley and Stanfield, 2007).
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