The following day Gonzalo de Alvarado marched on Huehuetenango and was confronted by a Mam army of 5,000 warriors from nearby Malacatán (modern Malacatancito). Pedro de Alvarado was a Spanish conquistador credited with the conquest of much of Central America, including Guatemala and El Salvador. The Spanish returned to the Kaqchikel capital on 23 July 1524 and on 27 July (1 Qʼat in the Kaqchikel calendar) Pedro de Alvarado declared Iximche as the first capital of Guatemala, Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala ("St. James of the Knights of Guatemala"). From this comes the modern name of the country. Pedro de Alvarado traveled on four expeditions. Lutz 1997, pp.  This was a serious setback and Alvarado camped his army in Nancintla for eight days, during which time he sent two expeditions against the attacking army. INFORPRESSCA 2011. Pedro moved the capital of New Mexico from being San Gabriel to the Spanish arrival at Iximche on 12 April rather than 14 April) based on vague dating in Spanish primary records. They arrived at the north shore of Lake Petén Itzá on 13 March 1525. In 1586 the Mercedarian Order built the first church in Santa Eulalia. , On the eve of the conquest the highlands of Guatemala were dominated by several powerful Maya states. Cortés decided to despatch Pedro de Alvarado with 180 cavalry, 300 infantry, crossbows, muskets, 4 cannons, large amounts of ammunition and gunpowder, and thousands of allied Mexican warriors from Tlaxcala, Cholula and other cities in central Mexico; they arrived in Soconusco in 1523. , During the campaign to conquer the Itza of Petén, the Spanish sent expeditions to harass and relocate the Mopan north of Lake Izabal and the Chʼol Maya of the Amatique forests to the east.  After the destruction of Qʼumarkaj and the execution of its rulers, Pedro de Alvarado sent messages to Iximche, capital of the Kaqchikel, proposing an alliance against the remaining Kʼicheʼ resistance. This strategy resulted in the gradual depopulation of the forest, simultaneously converting it into a wilderness refuge for those fleeing Spanish domination, both for individual refugees and for entire communities, especially those congregaciones that were remote from centres of colonial authority. The new settlement immediately suffered a drop in population, but although the Amatique Toquegua were reported extinct before 1613 in some sources, Mercedarian friars were still attending to them in 1625. Get this from a library!  All were Maya groups except for the Pipil, who were a Nahua group related to the Aztecs; the Pipil had a number of small city-states along the Pacific coastal plain of southern Guatemala and El Salvador. , By 1537 the area immediately north of the new colony of Guatemala was being referred to as the Tierra de Guerra ("Land of War"). Lehmann 1968, pp. Spanish and native tactics and technology differed greatly. Newson 1986, 2007, p. 145. Momostenango quickly fell to the Spanish after a four-hour battle. The Maya preferred raiding and ambush to large-scale warfare, using spears, arrows and wooden swords with inset obsidian blades; the Xinca of the southern coastal plain used poison on their arrows. Díaz del Castillo 1632, 2005, p. 510. The Pipil withdrew their scouts because of the heavy rain, believing that the Spanish and their allies would not be able to reach the town that day. He also served as governor of Guatemala (1527–31, 1537–41). Iberian Peninsula and South America (1762–63), Banda Oriental and Rio Grande do Sul (1762–63), Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, Brevísima Relación de la Destrucción de las Indias, body armour in the form of quilted cotton, "Tracing the "Enigmatic" Late Postclassic Nahua-Pipil (A.D. 1200–1500): Archaeological Study of Guatemalan South Pacific Coast", "Historia y Evolución del Curato de San Pedro Sacatepéquez San Marcos, desde su origen hasta 1848", "Relaciones de Verapaz y las Tierras Bajas Mayas Centrales en el siglo XVII", Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, "El Santo Ángel. , Chiquimula de la Sierra ("Chiquimula in the Highlands"), occupying the area of the modern department of Chiquimula to the east of the Poqomam and Chajoma, was inhabited by Chʼortiʼ Maya at the time of the conquest. Alvarado himself launched the second assault with 200 Tlaxcalan allies but was also beaten back. Native resistance to the new nucleated settlements took the form of the flight of the indigenous inhabitants into inaccessible regions such as mountains and forests. When the Europeans arrived in the 14th century, the Mayan civilization was already declining. 51–52. , In the run-up to the announcement that an invasion force was to be sent to Guatemala, 10,000 Nahua warriors had already been assembled by the Aztec emperor Cuauhtémoc to accompany the Spanish expedition. The survivors who managed to evade capture fought their way back to the Spanish garrison at Qʼumarkaj. This battle took place on 18 April. , In 1525, after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Hernán Cortés led an expedition to Honduras over land, cutting across the Itza kingdom in what is now the northern Petén Department of Guatemala. Mam warriors initially held the northern approaches against the Spanish infantry but fell back before repeated cavalry charges.  The expedition against Zaculeu was apparently initiated after Kʼicheʼ bitterness at their failure to contain the Spanish at Qʼumarkaj, with the plan to trap the conquistadors in the city having been suggested to them by the Mam king, Kaybʼil Bʼalam; the resulting execution of the Kʼicheʼ kings was viewed as unjust. He died while attempting to quell an Indian uprising in central Mexico. The Chʼol of the Lacandon Jungle were resettled in Huehuetenango in the early 18th century. Many Spanish and their horses died in the horse traps. The continued resistance was so determined that the Chuj remained pacified only while the immediate effects of the Spanish expeditions lasted. The fortress was surrounded on three sides by deep ravines and defended by a formidable system of walls and ditches. Pedro de Portocarrero led the second attempt with a large infantry detachment but was unable to engage with the enemy due to the difficult mountain terrain, so returned to Nancintla. Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 124. 764–765. The Spanish conquest of Guatemala was a protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, in which Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain. Pedro de Alvarado described how the Xinca of the Pacific coast attacked the Spanish with spears, stakes and poisoned arrows.  The Spanish conquest of the Maya was a prolonged affair; the Maya kingdoms resisted integration into the Spanish Empire with such tenacity that their defeat took almost two centuries..  The most important were the Kʼicheʼ, the Kaqchikel, the Tzʼutujil, the Chajoma, the Mam, the Poqomam and the Pipil. Many Kʼicheʼ and Tzʼutujil also died; in this way the Kaqchikel destroyed all these peoples. Born 1590 in and died 1677 in La Serena, Coquimbo Chile.  He demanded that their kings deliver 1000 gold leaves, each worth 15 pesos. Carmack 2001a, pp. MINEDUC 2001, pp. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Qʼanjobʼal resistance was largely passive, based on withdrawal to the inaccessible mountains and forests from the Spanish reducciones. He was handsome, and presented an affable appearance, but was volatile and quick to anger. He/She arrived in Hispaniola in 1510, where its put under cover of their uncle Diego de Alvarado. In the 17th century the Franciscans came to the conclusion that the pacification and Christian conversion of the Maya would not be possible as long as the Itza held out at Lake Petén Itzá. , The Kaqchikel kept up resistance against the Spanish for a number of years, but on 9 May 1530, exhausted by the warfare that had seen the deaths of their best warriors and the enforced abandonment of their crops, the two kings of the most important clans returned from the wilds. Ten days later the Spanish declared war on the Kaqchikel.  At the time of the fall of Nojpetén in 1697, there are estimated to have been 60,000 Maya living around Lake Petén Itzá, including a large number of refugees from other areas. The archaeological site now known as Mixco Viejo has been proven to be Jilotepeque Viejo, the capital of the Chajoma.  González left some of his men under the command of Francisco Riquelme at San Gil de Buena Vista, and sailed back east along the coast to Honduras.  The Maya had never been unified as a single empire, but by the time the Spanish arrived Maya civilization was thousands of years old and had already seen the rise and fall of great cities. Born 1922 in Puerto Rico (including Virgin Islands And Cuba).  Although the common view is that the Kʼicheʼ prince Tecun Uman died in the later battle near Olintepeque, the Spanish accounts are clear that at least one and possibly two of the lords of Qʼumarkaj died in the fierce battles upon the initial approach to Quetzaltenango.  The death of Tecun Uman is said to have taken place in the battle of El Pinar, and local tradition has his death taking place on the Llanos de Urbina (Plains of Urbina), upon the approach to Quetzaltenango near the modern village of Cantel. The Schele and Fahsen dates are used in this section. Inter state form of sales tax income tax? The Kowoj were located to the east of the Itza, around the eastern lakes: Lake Salpetén, Lake Macanché, Lake Yaxhá and Lake Sacnab. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores?  The inhabitants of Guatemala, for all their sophistication, lacked key elements of Old World technology, such as the use of iron and steel and functional wheels. A lengthy battle followed during which the Spanish cavalry managed to outflank the Ixil army and forced them to retreat to their mountaintop fortress at Nebaj.  It covered a broad area that included Cubulco, Rabinal, and Salamá (all in Baja Verapaz), San Agustín de la Real Corona (modern San Agustín Acasaguastlán) and La Magdalena in El Progreso, and Chimalapa, Gualán, Usumatlán and Zacapa, all in the department of Zacapa. On 12 February 1524 Alvarado's Mexican allies were ambushed in the pass and driven back by Kʼicheʼ warriors but the Spanish cavalry charge that followed was a shock for the Kʼicheʼ, who had never before seen horses.  The indigenous leader shot the friar through the throat with an arrow; the angry natives then seized him, cut open his chest and extracted his heart. Estudio antropológico sobre una santa popular guatemalteca: aldea El Trapiche, municipio de El Adelanto, departamento de Jutiapa", "Topoxte and Tayasal: Ethnohistory in Archaeology", "Zaculeu: Ciudad Postclásica en las Tierras Altas Mayas de Guatemala", Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Sociedad de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala, "The Ancient Cakchiquel Capital of Iximche", University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, "Reseña Historia del Municipio de San Mateo Ixtatán, Huehuetenango", "Qnaabʼila bʼix Qnaʼbʼila, Our thoughts and our feelings: Maya-Mam women's struggles in San Ildefonso Ixtahuacán", "La ciudadanía del pueblo chuj en México: Una dialéctica negativa de identidades", "Surviving Conquest: The Maya of Guatemala in Historical Perspective", "Módulo pedagógico para desarrollo turístico dirigido a docentes y estudiantes del Instituto Mixto de Educación Básica por Cooperativa de Enseñanza, Pasaco, Jutiapa", "Segundo Asiento Oficial de la Ciudad según Acta", "Excavaciones arqueológicas en la Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad de Chiquimula de la Sierra: Rescate del nombre y el prestigio de una iglesia olvidada", "Plan de Desarrollo San Agustín Acasaguastlán El Progreso 2011–2025", History of the Spanish Conquest of Yucatan and of the Itzas, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spanish_conquest_of_Guatemala&oldid=987677241, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Independent indigenous kingdoms and city-states, including those of the, Spanish allies scout Soconusco and receive delegations from the Kʼicheʼ and Kaqchikel, Retalhuleu, Suchitepéquez, Quetzaltenango, Totonicapán and El Quiché, Battle of Zapotitlán, Spanish victory over the Kʼicheʼ, First battle of Quetzaltenango results in the death of the Kʼicheʼ lord Tecun Uman, Spanish under Pedro de Alvarado raze Qʼumarkaj, capital of the Kʼicheʼ, Spanish enter Iximche and ally themselves with the Kaqchikel, Spanish defeat the Tzʼutujil in battle on the shores of Lake Atitlán, Pedro de Alvarado defeats the Pipil of Panacal or Panacaltepeque near Izcuintepeque, Pedro de Alvarado defeats the Xinca of Atiquipaque, Iximche declared first colonial capital of Guatemala, Kaqchikel abandon Iximche and break alliance, The Poqomam capital falls to Pedro de Alvarado, Zaculeu, capital of the Mam, surrenders to Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras after a lengthy siege, Spanish captains sent by Alvarado conquer Chiquimula, Spanish abandon their capital at Tecpán Guatemala, Ixil and Uspantek surrender to the Spanish, Juan de León y Cardona founds San Marcos and San Pedro Sacatepéquez, First reductions of the Chuj and Qʼanjobʼal, Reduction of Topiltepeque and Lakandon Chʼol, Franciscan missionaries arrive at Nojpetén, capital of the Itzá, Further missionary expeditions to Nojpetén, Reduction of San Mateo Ixtatán and Santa Eulalia, Melchor Rodríguez Mazariegos leaves Huehuetenango, leading an expedition against the Lacandón, Franciscan friar Andrés de Avendaño attempts to convert the Itzá, Spanish expeditions leave simultaneously from Cobán, San Mateo Ixtatán and Ocosingo against the Lacandón, Andrés de Avendaño forced to flee Nojpetén, Nojpetén falls to the Spanish after a fierce battle, This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 15:53. 1522 - Pedro de Alvarado became the city's first mayor. ... we waited until they came close enough to shoot their arrows, and then we smashed into them; as they had never seen horses, they grew very fearful, and we made a good advance ... and many of them died.  In at least one case, encomienda rights were granted to one of the Tlaxcalan leaders who came as allies, and land grants and exemption from being given in encomienda were given to the Mexican allies as rewards for their participation in the conquest. Gall 1967, pp.  In the 1520s, immediately after conquest, the inhabitants paid taxes to the Spanish Crown in the form of cacao, textiles, gold, silver and slaves. Pedro Alvarado of Parral, Chihuahua = There needs to be disambiguation in between Pedro de Alvarado subject of this article and the Parral, Chihuahua silver mining millionaire Pedro Alvarado of the late 19th and early 20th century.  Pedro de Portocarrero was a nobleman who joined the initial invasion.  A single soldier arriving in Mexico in 1520 was carrying smallpox and thus initiated the devastating plagues that swept through the native populations of the Americas. Chamberlain 1953, 1966, p. 11. Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who is known for his expeditions to Peru. Opposite a populated island the Spanish at last encountered hostile Tzʼutujil warriors and charged among them, scattering and pursuing them to a narrow causeway across which the surviving Tzʼutujil fled. Known For: Conquest and enslavement of indigenous people of Mexico and Latin America. [nb 7], In the colonial period, most of the surviving Chajoma were forcibly settled in the towns of San Juan Sacatepéquez, San Pedro Sacatepéquez and San Martín Jilotepeque as a result of the Spanish policy of congregaciones; the people were moved to whichever of the three towns was closest to their pre-conquest land holdings. , The Spanish engaged in a strategy of concentrating native populations in newly founded colonial towns, or reducciones (also known as congregaciones).  The Spanish bombardment caused heavy loss of life on the island; many Itza Maya who fled to swim across the lake were killed in the water. , In the ten years after the fall of Zaculeu various Spanish expeditions crossed into the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes and engaged in the gradual and complex conquest of the Chuj and Qʼanjobʼal. , The Tlaxcalan allies of the Spanish who accompanied them in their invasion of Guatemala wrote their own accounts of the conquest; these included a letter to the Spanish king protesting at their poor treatment once the campaign was over. Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado defeated the Maya … The battle was chaotic and lasted for most of the day but was finally decided by the Spanish cavalry, forcing the Poqomam reinforcements to withdraw. , In 1519 and 1520, before the arrival of the Spanish in the region, a number of epidemics swept through southern Guatemala. Matthew 2012, p. 81. The Itza resisted this steady encroachment by recruiting their neighbours as allies against the slow Spanish advance.  From the lake, Cortés continued south along the western slopes of the Maya Mountains, a particularly arduous journey that took 12 days to cover 32 kilometres (20 mi), during which he lost more than two-thirds of his horses. The surviving Tzʼutujil fled into the lake and swam to safety on another island. Eventually, Fray de León was chased out of San Mateo Ixtatán by the locals. By 1574 it was the most important staging post for European expeditions into the interior, and it remained important in that role until as late as 1630, although it was abandoned in 1631. , On 14 April 1524, soon after the defeat of the Kʼicheʼ, the Spanish were invited into Iximche and were well received by the lords Belehe Qat and Cahi Imox. , At the time of the conquest, the main Mam population was situated in Xinabahul (also spelled Chinabjul), now the city of Huehuetenango, but Zaculeu's fortifications led to its use as a refuge during the conquest. The Maya civilization was at its height from around 250 AD to 900 AD in what was called the Classic Period. They managed to catch some locals and used them to send messages to the Tzʼutujil lords, ordering them to submit to the king of Spain. As Alvarado left the Aztec capital, he led about 400 Spanish and approximately 200 Tlaxcaltec and Cholultec warriors and 100 Mexica, meeting up with the gathered reinforcements on the way.  The civil government was either run directly by the Spanish and their descendants (the criollos) or was tightly controlled by them. Fowler 1985, p. 41. Is there a way to search all eBay sites for different countries at once? Some of these settlements eventually received official recognition, such as San Raimundo near Sacul. The Mam army advanced across the plain in battle formation and was met by a Spanish cavalry charge that threw them into disarray, with the infantry mopping up those Mam that survived the cavalry. Nojpetén was renamed by the Spanish as Nuestra Señora de los Remedios y San Pablo, Laguna del Itza ("Our Lady of Remedy and Saint Paul, Lake of the Itza"). The Poqomam then received reinforcements, possibly from Chinautla, and the two armies clashed on open ground outside of the city. , In 1598 Alfonso Criado de Castilla became governor of the Captaincy General of Guatemala. , The kingdom of the Itza was the most powerful polity in the Petén lowlands of northern Guatemala, centred on their capital Nojpetén, on an island in Lake Petén Itzá. Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp. , The Kaqchikel appear to have entered into an alliance with the Spanish to defeat their enemies, the Tzʼutujil, whose capital was Tecpan Atitlan. The expedition rested at Chichicastenango and recruited further forces before marching seven leagues northwards to Sacapulas and climbed the steep southern slopes of the Cuchumatanes.  The Spanish were attracted to the region in the hope of extracting gold, silver and other riches from the mountains but their remoteness, the difficult terrain and relatively low population made their conquest and exploitation extremely difficult.  Hernán Cortés received reports of rich, populated lands to the south and dispatched Pedro de Alvarado to investigate the region. Born: c. 1485, Badajoz, Castile, Spain. Recinos 1952, 1986, pp.  When news of the killing of the messengers reached the Spanish at Iximche, the conquistadors marched against the Tzʼutujil with their Kaqchikel allies.  The Mam army was disorganised, and although it was a match for the Spanish and allied foot soldiers, it was vulnerable to the repeated charges of the experienced Spanish cavalry. From Pazaco Alvarado crossed the Río Paz and entered what is now El Salvador. Not much is known about his early life before he earned a name for himself as an adventurous and fearless conquistador, though folk legends give several accounts of his early exploits which however lack credibility.  The Xinca were another non-Maya group occupying the southeastern Pacific coastal area.  The Spanish were sufficiently impressed by the quilted cotton armour of their Maya enemies that they adopted it in preference to their own steel armour. , In 1543 the new colonial reducción of Santo Domingo de Cobán was founded at Chi Monʼa to house the relocated Qʼeqchiʼ from Chichen, Xucaneb and Al Run Tax Aj. Pedro de Alvarado, Spanish conquistador who helped conquer Mexico and Central America for Spain in the 16th century. Alvarado accompanied Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico (1519–21).  Maya warriors wore body armour in the form of quilted cotton that had been soaked in salt water to toughen it; the resulting armour compared favourably to the steel armour worn by the Spanish.  Pedro de Alvarado was infamous for the massacre of Aztec nobles in Tenochtitlan and, according to Bartolomé de las Casas, he committed further atrocities in the conquest of the Maya kingdoms in Guatemala. , In 1525 Pedro de Alvarado sent a small company to conquer Mixco Viejo (Chinautla Viejo), the capital of the Poqomam. In response to the use of Spanish cavalry, the highland Maya took to digging pits and lining them with wooden stakes. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 762. In the decades before the Spanish invasion the Kaqchikel kingdom had been steadily eroding the kingdom of the Kʼicheʼ. 765–766. Josserand and Hopkins 2001, p. 3. Pedro de Alvarado described how the Mam king Kaybʼil Bʼalam was received with great honour in Qʼumarkaj while he was there. Schele & Mathews 1999, p. 386. n. 15. Schele & Mathews 1999, p. 297. From Totonicapán the expedition headed north to Momostenango, although it was delayed by heavy rains.  The western portion of this area was the territory of the Qʼeqchiʼ Maya.