the pale blue dot

The picture, he said, would show us “ our place in the universe “. The Pale Blue Dot was the brainchild of famed astronomer, science communicator and Voyager imaging team member Carl Sagan, who first proposed snapping Earth with Voyager cameras in 1981. [14], After taking the Family Portrait series of images, which included Pale Blue Dot, NASA mission managers commanded Voyager 1 to power its cameras down, as the spacecraft was not going to fly near anything else of significance for the rest of its mission, while other instruments that were still collecting data needed power for the long journey to interstellar space. The rings cast threadlike shadows onto the northern hemisphere of the planet. If it were in my power, every person on the planet would read this. A small satellite mission to study the lunar water cycle has received NASA approval to proceed to the next phase of development. Each frame had been taken using a different color filter: blue, green and violet, with exposure times of 0.72, 0.48 and 0.72 seconds respectively. It was written in 1994, and therefore one of his last publications, as Sagan tragically died in 1996. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech, › Download from NASA's Planetary Photojournal, Director, NASA Planetary Science Division: The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system from a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic. The large crater Odysseus can be seen on the eastern... A portion of the rim of giant Yalode Crater is seen in this image of Ceres. The three frames were then recombined to produce the image that became Pale Blue Dot. This was precisely why Sagan and other members of the Voyager team felt the images were needed — they wanted humanity to see Earth’s vulnerability and that our home world is just a tiny, fragile speck in the cosmic ocean. The Sagan Series is an educational project working in the hopes of promoting scientific literacy in the general population. When the spacecraft passed the planet in 1980, Sagan proposed the idea of the space probe taking one last picture of Earth. The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system from a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic. To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we've ever known. As the spacecraft was departing our planetary neighborhood for the fringes of the solar system, it turned it … Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space The astronomer Carl Sagan is one of my intellectual heroes, and one of the great secularists of the twentieth century. Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. ‘The Pale Blue Dot'. Since NASA's Cassini spacecraft arrived at Saturn in mid-2004, the planet's appearance has changed greatly. The image was processed by JPL engineer and image processing enthusiast Kevin M. Gill with input from two of the image's original planners, Candy Hansen and William Kosmann. The Pale Blue Dot is an iconic photograph of Earth taken on Feb. 14, 1990, by NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft. The moon Tethys cruises past, in front of Saturn's edge-on rings. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner, how frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. He briefed the Apollo astronauts before their flights to the Moon. The light bands across the photograph are an artifact, the result of sunlight reflecting off parts of the camera and its sunshade, due to the relative proximity between the Sun and the Earth. A few key members didn’t show up in the shot: Mars was obscured by scattered sunlight bouncing around in the camera, Mercury was too close to the Sun, and dwarf planet Pluto was too tiny, too far away and too dark to be detected. Voyager 1 was the first space probe to provide detailed images of the two largest planets and their major moons. [1], Voyager 1, which had completed its primary mission and was leaving the Solar System, was commanded by NASA to turn its camera around and take one last photograph of Earth across a great expanse of space, at the request of astronomer and author Carl Sagan. PIA00452 - This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed 'Pale Blue Dot', is a part of the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by Voyager 1. Settle, not yet. Voyager 1 was speeding out of the solar system — beyond Neptune and about 3.7 billion miles (6 billion kilometers) from the Sun — when mission managers commanded it to look back toward home for a final time. The Cassini spacecraft watches over the northern latitudes of Saturn's geologically active moon Enceladus while the planet's rings peek through in the distance in this snapshot. The Earth images were taken at 04:48 GMT on Feb. 14, 1990, just 34 minutes before Voyager 1 powered off its cameras forever. [18], Earth appears as a blue dot in the photograph primarily because of Rayleigh scattering of sunlight in its atmosphere. The "Pale Blue Dot" picture of Planet Earth was acquired by the Voyager 1 probe exactly 30 years ago on Friday - from a distance of about 6 billion km (4 billion miles) miles. [9] The command sequence was then compiled and sent to Voyager 1, with the images taken at 04:48 GMT on February 14, 1990. Like Earth, each planet appears as just a speck of light (Uranus and Neptune appear elongated due to spacecraft motion during their 15-second camera exposures). So now you've channelled all your weighty thoughts, Supreme, pin-loaded treasure trove of sorts, Yet see, here comes a breeze which has them caught. The Pale Blue Dot is a very famous image that was taken by the Voyager 1 probe. For other uses, see, Photograph of planet Earth by Voyager 1 from about 6 billion kilometers, Video (3:30) – Carl Sagan reading – original version, Video (3:26) – Carl Sagan reading – official version, "From Earth to the Solar System, The Pale Blue Dot", "The Earth from the frontiers of the Solar system – The Pale, Blue Dot", "It's our dot: For Carl Sagan, planet Earth is just a launch pad for human explorations of the outer universe", "Voyager 1 Narrow Angle Camera Description", "Voyager Celebrates 20-Year-Old Valentine to Solar System", "PIA00452: Solar System Portrait – Earth as 'Pale Blue Dot, "PIA00450: Solar System Portrait – View of the Sun, Earth and Venus", "Views from EPOXI: Colors in Our Solar System as an Analog for Extrasolar Planets", "NASA's JPL Horizon System for calculating ephemerides for solar system bodies", "Nasa 're-masters' classic 'Pale Blue Dot' image of Earth", Carl Sagan Award for Public Appreciation of Science, Carl Sagan Prize for Science Popularization, Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pale_Blue_Dot&oldid=989406623, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 20:19. Bill Dunford. Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of planet Earth taken on February 14, 1990, by the Voyager 1 space probe from a record distance of about 6 billion kilometers (3.7 billion miles, 40.5 AU), as part of that day's Family Portrait series of images of the Solar System. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we make our stand. This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed 'Pale Blue Dot', is a part of the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by Voyager 1. [5], Three of the frames received showed the Earth as a tiny point of light in empty space. Pale Blue Dot is a non-fiction and is Sagan’s analysis of the role space will play in humanity’s future. Voyager 1 was expected to work only through the Saturn encounter. [5][19] Voyager's point of view was approximately 32° above the ecliptic. It is the sequel to Cosmos and was inspired by the famous 1990 Pale Blue Dot photograph, for which Sagan provides a poignant description. According to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's HORIZONS tool, the distances between Voyager 1 and the Earth on February 14 and May 15, 1990, were as follows:[23]. In 2015, NASA acknowledged the 25th anniversary of the photograph. This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the ringed planet Saturn shows a Then, between March and May 1990, Voyager 1 returned 60 frames back to Earth, with the radio signal travelling at the speed of light for nearly five and a half hours to cover the distance. The rings split the planet in two in this Cassini spacecraft view of a crescent Saturn. The Cassini spacecraft captured this high-resolution view of the cratered surface of Saturn's moon Rhea as the spacecraft flew by the moon on Oct. 17, 2010. To the untrained eye, the image… Enceladus blasts its icy spray into space in this unlit-side ring view that also features a tiny sliver of Rhea. After Neptune, it took images of Uranus, Saturn, Mars, the Sun, and then Jupiter, Earth and Venus. Lakes on Saturn's moon Titan reflect radio waves in varying ways in this image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. It took until May 1, 1990 — and four separate communications passes with NASA's Deep Space Network — for all the image data to finally arrive back on Earth. In the photograph, Earth's apparent size is less than a pixel; the planet appears as a tiny dot against the vastness of space, among bands of sunlight reflected by the camera. [8] He acknowledged that such a picture would not have had much scientific value, as the Earth would appear too small for Voyager's cameras to make out any detail, but it would be meaningful as a perspective on humanity's place in the universe. Our focus is to provide our community with natural, ethical, human & earth-friendly products and to inspire slow, conscious, low-waste living. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that, in glory and triumph, they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot. Site Manager: In September 1977, NASA launched Voyager 1, a 722-kilogram (1,592 lb) robotic spacecraft on a mission to study the outer Solar System and eventually interstellar space. Mission planners wanted to save its energy for the long journey ahead. Pale Blue Dot Revisited Figure A. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every "superstar," every "supreme leader," every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there--on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam. For the 30th anniversary of one of the most iconic images taken by NASA's Voyager mission, a new version of the image known as "the Pale Blue Dot." Visit, yes. The Cassini spacecraft captured this image of a dimly lit Titan as Saturn's largest moon was eclipsed by the planet. This view in the southern constellation Carina was acquired on December 13, 2007 as part of the characterization tests of the Framing Camera. That's here. The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. Amanda Barnett [citation needed][18], Pale Blue Dot, which was taken with the narrow-angle camera, was also published as part of a composite picture created from a wide-angle camera photograph showing the Sun and the region of space containing the Earth and Venus. [20][21] (The ocean also contributes to Earth's blueness, but to a lesser degree than scattering. It’s now the most distant human-made object ever. This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed "Pale Blue Dot," is a part of the first ever "portrait" of the solar system taken by Voyager 1. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. Even so, the result was a bright burned-out image with multiple reflections from the optics in the camera and the Sun that appears far larger than the actual dimension of the solar disk. SOHO’s original operating phase was scheduled for two years – and now, through repeated extensions, it is celebrating 25 years in orbit. Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space is a 1994 book by the astronomer Carl Sagan. He had the original idea in 1981 to use the cameras on one of the two Voyager spacecraft to image Earth. A Pale Blue Dot The following excerpt from Carl Sagan's book Pale Blue Dot was inspired by an image taken, at Sagan's suggestion, by Voyager 1 on 14 February 1990. We are a small, family owned shop in Hamilton, Ontario. The Pale Blue Dot photo was taken by the Voyager I probe at the request of Carl Sagan who convinced NASA that the photo was worth the cost even if it had no scientific value. On Feb. 13, 1990, Voyager 1 warmed up its cameras for three hours. That's us. The images gave humans an awe-inspiring and unprecedented view of their home world and its neighbors. rare storm that appears as a white arrowhead-shaped feature near the Voyager 1 was speeding out of the solar system — beyond Neptune and about 3.7 billion miles (6 billion kilometers) from the Sun — when mission managers commanded it to look back toward home for a final time. This image was taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on April 15, 2012. The family portrait remains the first and only time a spacecraft has attempted to photograph our home solar system. In addition to Earth, Voyager 1 captured images of Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, and Venus. [16], The data from the camera was stored initially in an on-board tape recorder. Voyager 1 was launched Sept. 5, 1977, just days after its twin — Voyager 2 — on Aug. 20. After snapping the Pale Blue Dot and other “family photos,” — at 05:22 GMT, Feb. 14, 1990 — Voyager 1 powered off its cameras forever. Only three spacecraft have been capable of making such an observation from such a distance: Voyager 1, Voyager 2 and New Horizons. In his 1994 book, Pale Blue Dot, Carl Sagan comments on what he sees as the greater significance of the photograph, writing: Look again at that dot. On it, everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. Pale Blue Dot refers to the Earth as photographed from the Voyager craft at a point beyond the orbit of Neptune. What is The Pale Blue Dot? Pale Blue Dot is the farthest photograph of planet Earth ever taken. In Earth's air, short-wavelength visible light such as blue light is scattered to a greater extent than longer wavelength light such as red light, which is the reason why the sky appears blue from Earth. That's home. The picture that would become known as the Pale Blue Dot shows Earth within a scattered ray of sunlight. ", Earth Poster - Version G - The Pale Blue Dot, First-Ever Solar System Family Portrait (1990), Prominence from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hubble Captures Unprecedented Fading of Stingray Nebula, Sun-Observing SOHO Mission Celebrates a Quarter-Century in Space, Data Confirm Near-Earth Object 2020 SO is Upper Centaur Rocket Booster, NASA Confirms New SIMPLEx Mission Small Satellite to Study Lunar Surface, Data Sonification: A New Cosmic Triad of Sound, Solar Superstorms of the Past Help Identify Risks for Satellites. This image of Domna AV-L-17, from the atlas of the giant asteroid Vesta, was created from images taken as NASA's Dawn mission flew around the object, also known as a protoplanet. [21] Rayleigh scattering, which causes Earth's blueness, is enhanced in an atmosphere that does not substantially absorb visible light, unlike, for example, the orange-brown color of Titan, where organic haze particles absorb strongly at blue visible wavelengths. Social Media Lead: Because it was on a faster route to the mission's first encounter, at Jupiter, Voyager 1 overtook Voyager 2 on Dec. 15, 1977. The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system from a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic. This image of Texas, obtained by astronauts aboard NASA's Gemini 4 spacecraft on June 5, 1965, shows a large dark swath attributed to rainfall. This view looks up toward the south pole of Titan which lies on the terminator ... On April 21, 2010, NASA released the first-light images from its newest sun-monitoring mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory. planet's equator. Detailed analysis suggested that the camera also detected the Moon, although it is too faint to be visible without special processing. Voyager 1 had captured images of six of the seven planets targeted as well as the Sun. Then the spacecraft’s science platform was pointed at Neptune and the observations began. “Pale Blue Dot” is a magnified image, and the placing of Earth seemingly “suspended in a sunbeam” that’s brownish in color (in the original image, above) is a mere coincidence. This image has not been validated or calibrated. It was written in 1994, and therefore one of his last publications, as Sagan tragically died in 1996. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image of our tiny world. In August 2012, Voyager 1 entered interstellar space. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves. The Cassini spacecraft reveals a remarkable amount of structure in the outer portion of Saturn's A ring. The camera was pointing toward Tethys at approximately 115,714 miles (186,224 kilometers) away. Since then, along with Sagan’s moving tribute, it’s inspired generations of people to look differently at their place in the universe. [17][18], Of the 640,000 individual pixels that compose each frame, Earth takes up less than one (0.12 of a pixel, according to NASA). Now drifting free of artifice and style? [3][4] After the encounter with the Jovian system in 1979 and the Saturnian system in 1980, the primary mission was declared complete in November of the same year. [16][27], To celebrate the same occasion, the Carl Sagan Institute released a video with several noted astronomers reciting Sagan's "Pale Blue Dot" speech. That's us. First-Ever Solar System Family Portrait (1990). The very famous picture was taken by Voyager 1 when the probe was instructed … For the 30th anniversary of one of the most iconic images taken by NASA's Voyager mission, a new version of the image known as "the Pale Blue Dot." Pale Blue Dot's home page. Stay up to date on the bands news. Astronomers have caught a rare look at a rapidly fading shroud of gas around an aging star. This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed 'Pale Blue Dot', is a part of the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by Voyager 1. (This was the reason for the order of their naming.). The Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of Earth taken Feb. 14, 1990, by NASA’s Voyager 1 at a distance of 3.7 billion miles (6 billion kilometers) from the Sun. The wide-angle image was inset with two narrow-angle pictures: Pale Blue Dot and a similar photograph of Venus. New research indicates less intense, but longer-lasting solar storms surprisingly have bigger effects on satellites’ orbits than the shorter, more severe ones. This movie is based on data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft and shows a flyover of an area of Saturn's moon Titan known as Sotra Facula. The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. [2] The phrase "Pale Blue Dot" was coined by Sagan himself in his reflections on the photograph's significance, documented in his 1994 book of the same name.[1]. Yalode is approximately 162 miles (260 kilometers) in diameter. You can stream, download, purchase new merch. [12][13], The challenge was that, as the mission progressed, the objects to be photographed would increasingly be farther away and would appear fainter, requiring longer exposures and slewing (panning) of the cameras to achieve acceptable quality. The direction of the Sun is toward the bottom, where the image is brightest. The spacecraft, still travelling at 64,000 km/h (40,000 mph), is the most distant human-made object from Earth and the first one to leave the Solar System. That's us. That's home. Pale Blue Dot is a non-fiction and is Sagan’s analysis of the role space will play in humanity’s future. The cluster of stars in the center is NGC 3532, and the... + View Full Res ", Images and Downloads This "super-resolution” view of asteroid Bennu was created using eight images obtained by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. [5] Its mission has been extended and continues to this day, with the aim of investigating the boundaries of the Solar System, including the Kuiper belt, the heliosphere and interstellar space. “How is it that hardly any major religion has looked at science and concluded, “This is better than we … A recent update to this historic portrait shows Earth as a tiny speck surrounded by the vastness of space. This site is maintained by the Planetary Science Communications team at, "Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space," in which he wrote: "Look again at that dot. "[26], In 2020, for the image's 30th anniversary, NASA published a new version of the original Voyager photo: Pale Blue Dot Revisited, obtained using modern image processing techniques "while attempting to respect the original data and intent of those who planned the images." Voyager 1 was so far away that — from its vantage point — Earth was just a point of light about a pixel in size. [28], This article is about the photograph. Thirty years ago, a spacecraft, bound for the edges of the solar system, turned back toward Earth and took a picture. “The Pale Blue Dot” by Carl Sagan. But for us, it's different. [5][9][10] A proposal to continue to photograph Earth as it orbited the Sun was rejected. Both cameras are of the slow-scan vidicon tube type and were fitted with eight colored filters, mounted on a filter wheel placed in front of the tube. Science Writer: For more information on raw images check out our Freque... Only loaded to promote a 11/11/2010 feature. The wide-angle photograph was taken with the darkest filter (a methane absorption band) and the shortest possible exposure (5 milliseconds), to avoid saturating the camera's vidicon tube with scattered sunlight. NASA's Dawn spacecraft took this image on June 15, 2016. The title of the book, Pale Blue Dot, was taken from the instantly infamous Pale Blue Dot photograph taken by Voyager 1 in 1990. The iconic “pale blue dot” photograph of Earth was taken 30 years ago – Feb. 14, 1990, at a distance of 3.7 billion miles – by the NASA spacecraft Voyager 1 as it zipped toward the far edge of the solar system. The Pale Blue Dot is an iconic photograph of Earth taken on Feb. 14, 1990, by NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft. Phillips Davis Scientists have confirmed that Near-Earth Object 2020 SO is a 1960’s-Era Centaur rocket booster. Carl Sagan - Pale Blue Dot Transcript: From this distant vantage point, the Earth might not seem of any particular interest. The telecommunication capability also diminished with distance, limiting the number of data modes that could be used by the imaging system. Finding a way to display the images and capture the sheer scale of Voyager’s accomplishment proved challenging. The Pale Blue Dot was captured on February 14th in 1990. That's here. Sagan played a leading role in the U.S. space program. A new trio of examples of ‘data sonification’ from NASA missions provides a new method to enjoy an arrangement of cosmic objects. "Pale Blue Dot" was the name of a 1994 book by Carl Sagan on the Voyager probe. The granular look of the outer edge of the A ring, first discovered soon after Cassini's or... Saturn's tiny moon Atlas appears almost indistinguishable from the background stars seen in this Cassini spacecraft image. Dr. Lori Glaze Kristen Erickson Finally, NASA Administrator Richard Truly interceded to ensure that the photograph was taken. Earth, described by scientist Carl Sagan as a “Pale Blue Dot,” as seen by Voyager 1 from a distance of more than 4 billion miles. [15], The design of the command sequence to be relayed to the spacecraft and the calculations for each photograph's exposure time were developed by space scientists Candy Hansen of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Carolyn Porco of the University of Arizona. Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist, commented: "Twenty-five years ago, Voyager 1 looked back toward Earth and saw a "pale blue dot", an image that continues to inspire wonderment about the spot we call home. A validated/calibrated image will be archived with the NASA Planetary Data System in 2012. That's home. He realized that because the spacecraft were so far away the images might not show much. [20]) Earth is a pale blue dot, rather than dark blue, because white light reflected by clouds combines with the scattered blue light.[21]. Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of planet Earth taken on February 14, 1990, by the Voyager 1 space probe from a record distance of about 6 billion kilometers (3.7 billion miles, 40.5 AU), as part of that day's Family Portrait series of images of the Solar System. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter on March 5, 1979, and Saturn on Nov. 12, 1980. Brightness levels and colors were rebalanced to enhance the area containing the Earth, and the image was enlarged, appearing brighter and less grainy than the original. The rays around the Sun are a diffraction pattern of the calibration lamp which is mounted in front of the wide-angle lens. Operating for 43 years, 2 months and 26 days as of today (1 December 2020), it receives routine commands and transmits data back to the Deep Space Network.[3][6][7]. The image inspired the title of scientist Carl Sagan's book, "Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space," in which he wrote: "Look again at that dot. It snapped a series of 60 images that were used to create the first “family portrait” of our solar system. NASA Official: [22] Earth's plentiful atmospheric oxygen, which is produced by photosynthetic life forms, causes the atmosphere to be transparent to visible light, which allows for substantial Rayleigh scattering and hence stronger reflectance of blue light. [11], Voyager 1's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) consists of two cameras: a 200 mm focal length, low-resolution wide-angle camera (WA), used for spatially extended imaging, and a 1500 mm high-resolution narrow-angle camera (NA) – the one that took Pale Blue Dot – intended for detailed imaging of specific targets. Transmission to Earth was also delayed by the Magellan and Galileo missions being given priority over the use of the Deep Space Network. That's here. The prominent planetary scientist was a consultant and adviser to NASA beginning in the 1950s. Members of the Voyager imaging team said in a 2019 research paper that the image of Earth had to be replaced often because so many people touched it. Earth Poster - Version G - The Pale Blue Dot Read More SpaceX plans to launch fifth Starlink batch Sunday … The famous “Pale Blue Dot” image of Earth taken from 4 billion miles away has been remastered and released by NASA for the snap’s 30th anniversary. ‘Pale Blue Dot’ is an external point of view of the earth within the context of the universe. Earth's reflectance spectrum from the far-ultraviolet to the near-infrared is unlike that of any other observed planet and is partially due to the presence of life on Earth. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory — which built and manages the Voyager probes — mounted the entire mosaic on a wall in its Theodore von Kármán Auditorium and it covered over 20 feet. In his role as a visiting scientist at JPL, Sagan helped design and manage the Mariner 2 mission to Venus; the Mariner 9, Viking 1 and Viking 2 trips to Mars; the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 missions to the outer solar system and the Galileo mission to Jupiter. It was not until 1989 that Sagan's idea was put into practice, but then instrument calibrations delayed the operation further, and the personnel who devised and transmitted the radio commands to Voyager 1 were also being laid off or transferred to other projects.

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