alder buckthorn invasive

Brown bark with elongate silvery corky projections (Caution: native plums or cherries have a similar bark). Common buckthorn can thrive in a wide range of soil and light conditions, enabling it to invade a variety of habitats. (Rhamnaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence phylogenies. Distribution map Synonyms Rhamnus frangula L. Frangula atlantica Grubov Frangula dodonei Ard. Glossy, oval to obovate, dark green leaves (to 3” long) retain green color well into fall, usually resulting in poor fall color. That is why two buckthorn species -- common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and glossy or alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus and Rhamnus frangula) -- were introduced to North America in the 1800s, but they have become invasive. All of these plants though, were credited with the power to protect against witchcraft, demons, poisons, and headaches. The fruit is a small black berry 6–10 mm (1⁄4–13⁄32 inch) in diameter, ripening from green through red in late summer to dark purple or black in early autumn, containing two or three pale brown 5-millimetre (3⁄16-inch) seeds. Frangula alnus Foliage with mature and immature fruit Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Rosids Order: Rosales Family: Rhamnaceae Genus: Frangula Species: F. alnus Binomial name Frangula alnus Mill. © 2020 Minnesota DNR | Equal opportunity employer |, Call 651-296-6157 or 888-MINNDNR (646-6367). Buckthorn berries contain emodin, a natural laxative, that prevents mammals from digesting sugars found in the berries. [23], Galen, a Greek physician of the 2nd century A.D., knew of alder buckthorn, although he did not distinguish clearly in his writings between it and other closely related species. These buckthorn species were first brought here from Europe as a popular hedging material. Spaced apart, the Alder Buckthorn stands like a row of soldiers at attention; closer together, the plants weave together to create an impressive screen of bright green, ovate leaves. There are eight to nine pair of leaf veins. Plants leaf out early and retain leaves late into the fall creating dense shade. The flowers are valuable for bees, and the fruit an important food source for birds, particularly thrushes. Another common name for Glossy Buckthorn is Alder Buckthorn because from a dist ance, those deep leaf veins make it look like our native Alder (see page 8), but up close, you can see the differences. The leaves are arranged alternately on 8–15-millimetre (5⁄16–19⁄32-inch) petioles. Alder buckthorn is a non-spiny deciduous shrub, growing to 3–6 m (10–20 ft), occasionally to 7 m (23 ft) tall. Each berry has two to three seeds. This plant is seldom over 3 feet (1m) tall. For information on the state’s response, visit the Department of Health website. Alder-leaf Buckthorn seldom forms large stands and is not invasive like Glossy or European Buckthorn is. DNR RESPONSE TO COVID-19: For details on adjustments to DNR services, visit this webpage. It is native to Europe, northernmost Africa, and western Asia, from Ireland and Great Britain north to the 68th parallel in Scandinavia, east to central Siberia and Xinjiang in western China, and south to northern Morocco, Turkey, and the Alborz in Iran and Caucasus Mountains; in the northwest of its range (Ireland, Scotland), it is rare and scattered. It is particularly highly valued for time fuses because of its very even burn rate. The history of invasion and current status of glossy buckthorn, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Aggressively invades wetlands including acidic bogs, calcareous fens and sedge meadows. Common or European buckthorn and glossy or alder buckthorn are invasive species that are illegal to sell and plant in many areas. The seeds are primarily dispersed by frugivorous birds, which readily eat the fruit.[3][5][6][7][8][9]. Common buckthorn is considered an invasive species throughout most of the northeastern and central United States and sou… [10] Although much disputed historically, the separation of Frangula from Rhamnus is now widely accepted, being supported by recent genetic data[11] though a few authorities still retain the genus within Rhamnus (e.g. Leaves stay green late into fall. [19] Frangula alnus and the related species Rhamnus cathartica have been banned from sale, transport, or import to Minnesota[20] and Illinois. Neither shrub does particularly well on dry sand. Glossy buckthorn tends to grow more in and around wetlands. Catling, P.M., and Z.S. inval. The bark yields a yellow dye, and the unripe berries furnish a green dye. Pulling in small infestations (weed wrench), Cut-stump treatment with glyphosate; cut-stump or basal bark spray treatment around the stem with triclopyr, DNR permit to work in public water may be required. The shrubs have spreading, loosely-branched crowns. Also grows in upland habitats, tolerates full sun to deep shade. [13][14][15] It is predicted to continue to expand its North American range with time. Plants leaf out early and retain leaves late into the fall creating dense shade. These areas, usually where a tree has fallen, normally allow locally native tree seedlings to grow and eventually fill in the gap in the canopy. Aggressively invades wetlands including acidic bogs, calcareous fens and sedge meadows. For all the negative press that buckthorns get, many people are surprised that Minnesota has a native buckthorn. Like many other invasive trees and shrubs, buckthorn leafs out early and retains its leaves into late fall, giving it a much longer advantageous growing season than native plants. Alder-leaved buckthorn The native alder-leaved buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia) is less than 1 m (3 ft) tall and has leaves with tiny rounded teeth and 6 or 7 pairs of veins. After an inconspicuous spring bloom, small, red to purple fruit form. Its bark is gray to brown with white lenticels. Seeds have laxative effect on birds who disperse them. Common, or European, buckthorn, and glossy buckthorn are the two non-native, invasive buckthorn species found in Minnesota. It has dull green oval or egg shaped leaves and is easily identified by the small thorns at the tip of its branches. The genus name Frangula, from Latin frango "to break", refers to the brittle wood. The bark is dark blackish-brown, with bright lemon-yellow inner bark exposed if cut. It has 8 or 9 leaf veins rather than the 3 to 5 of common buckthorn. Frangula alnus, commonly known as alder buckthorn, glossy buckthorn, or breaking buckthorn, is a tall deciduous shrub in the family Rhamnaceae. Toothed, strictly alternate leaves, with branches never tipped with spines, characterize Alder-leaf Buckthorn. It is most often found in woodlands and open fields, where it f… It was introduced to North America in the 1880s as an ornamental shrub and was widely planted for fencerows and windbreaks in agricultural fields. Frangula frangula H.Karst. Unlike other "buckthorns", alder buckthorn does not have thorns. Introduced to North America as ornamental shrub, often planted in hedgerows. Foliage The dark green leaves are shiny, alternate (sometime opposite) and simple with prominent venation. The species is listed as an invasive weed in Tennessee and Wisconsin, USA (Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1996; Hoffman and Kearns, 1997). Alder-leafed buckthorn (R. alnifolia) is the native, but it’s not nearly so common as the other two. [12], Alder buckthorn grows in wet soils in open woods, scrub, hedgerows and bogs, thriving well in sunlight and moderate shade, but less vigorously in dense shade; it prefers acidic soils though will also grow on neutral soils. European Buckthorn (green) in late fall We have two types of invasive Buckthorn in Minnesota. Porebski. [citation needed], The bark (and to a lesser extent the fruit) has been used as a laxative, due to its 3–7% anthraquinone content. Alder buckthorn may also refer to. [17], It invades forests and grows in the understory in spots with a lot of light. Alder-leaved buckthorn is smaller than common buckthorn, only reaching a maximum of 3’ in height at maturity. They became a nuisance plant, forming … The cultivar 'Tallhedge' has been selected for hedging. Its bark is gray to brown with white lenticels. It lacks a thorn at the tip of its branches and its terminal buds are not covered by scales. Glossy buckthorn was imported from Europe in the early 1900s as a landscape shrub. I have seen plants cut and poisoned by over-zealous invasive species hunters. Common buckthorn is primarily an invader of uplands, such as open woods, woodland edges, prairies, and open fields. Seeds have laxative effect on birds who disperse them. Flowers: Inconspicuous, appear in May or June, clustered in the axils of leaves. Common buckthorn (also known as European buckthorn) is a small shrub or tree native to Eurasia. Alder buckthorn charcoal is prized in the manufacture of gunpowder, and is regarded as the best wood for the purpose. Generic limits in Rhamnus L. s.l. The first (most common) is European Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and the second is Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus). Noteworthy Characteristics. Their bark is gray to brown with prominent, often elongate, lighter-colored lenticels. No thorn at tip of twig. [12][8] Other recorded names include glossy buckthorn and breaking buckthorn; historically, it was sometimes called "dogwood" through confusion of the leaves with those of dogwood Cornus sanguinea. Branches: Buds and leaves are alternate. Plants have horticultural value and can be grown as an informal hedge. Appearance Frangula alnus is a large shrub or small tree that can grow to heights of 30 ft. (9.1 m). Appearance: Tall understory shrub or small tree, grows up to 20' high, has a spreading loosely branched crown, often multiple stems at the base. The buckthorns share a very distinctive winter appearance having nak… [8], Frangula alnus was probably introduced to North America about 200 years ago, and in Canada about 100 years ago. Glossy buckthorn The related invasive glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus) has untoothed leaves and flowers with five petals rather than four. Cut branch exposes yellow sapwood and orange heartwood. It grows in fens and other wetlands. It is usually multistemmed, but rarely forms a small tree with a trunk diameter of up to 20 cm (8 in). Popular cultivars of it had narrow, columnar forms or fine feathery foliage with names like Tallhedge Buckthorn and Fernleaf Buckthorn. Frangula alnus is commonly called alder buckthorn because it is frequently seen in the wild growing in moist soils near alders (genus Alnus).It is also commonly called glossy buckthorn in reference to its glossy leaves. Lance-leafed buckthorn ( R. lanceolata ; native) is less than 6’ tall, found in wet areas and on dry limestone slopes, and has alternate leaves, 2-6” long, gradually tapering to a point at the tip. Alder buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula), also called Black Dogwood.Frangula Bark, Glossy Buckthorn, Alder Buckthorn, Fernleaf Buckthorn, Tallhedge Buckthorn, Alder Dogwood, Black Dogwood, Arraclán, Arrow Wood, Black Alder Tree, Aulne Noir, Black Dogwood, Bois Noir and Bois à Poudre is a woody shrub or small tree of the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae), native to western Asia, Europe, and … Frangula alnus is commonly called alder buckthorn because it is frequently seen in the wild growing in moist soils near alders (genus Alnus).It is also commonly called glossy buckthorn in reference to its glossy leaves. Most buckthorn varieties are easy-to-grow shrubs that make great privacy screens, backdrops, or hedges, thanks to their dense habit and lustrous, dark-green foliage. But when Frangula alnus invades and grows in these locations, its dense canopy prevents light from reaching the ground and therefore prevents other seedlings from growing. There are several native trees and shrubs that … Alder buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia; native) is under 3’ tall with thornless twigs. [21] It is considered invasive, but not banned, in Connecticut. Unlike other "buckthorns", alder buckthorn does not have thorns. Both common and glossy buckthorns are tall shrubs or small trees reaching 20-25 feet in height and 10 inches in diameter. tall hedge buckthorn This plant and synonyms italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Glossy, oval to obovate, dark green leaves (to 3” long) retain green color well into fall, usually resulting in poor fall color. [6][12][9], Frangula alnus is one of just two food plants (the other being Rhamnus cathartica) used by the common brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni). Seeds are viable for two to three years in the soil. [18], Small saplings can be hand-pulled, but control of larger examples is best achieved using herbicides. Appearance Frangula alnus is a large shrub or small tree that can grow to heights of 30 ft. (9.1 m). Leaves: Alternate, think, and ovate or elliptic smooth, dark glossy, margins are not toothed. The flowers are small, 3–5 mm (1⁄8–3⁄16 inch) in diameter, star-shaped with five greenish-white acute triangular petals, hermaphroditic, and insect-pollinated, flowering in May to June in clusters of two to ten in the leaf axils. the Flora of China[7]). Hemlock-oak stands, which tend to be older stands of trees, are much less suitable for Frangula alnus because the density of the tree canopy creates a more shady environment that is not as suitable for Frangula alnus. Derived from a cross of ‘Columnaris’ (female) and ‘Asplenifolia’ (male) ; reportedly has low seed set and seed is not viable, hence not a potential weed or invasive threat. This selection grows 12-15’ tall and 3-4’ wide and has an upright, columnar habit. Bark for medicinal use is dried and stored for a year before use, as fresh bark is violently purgative; even dried bark can be dangerous if taken in excess. nom. Both the common name alder buckthorn and specific epithet alnus refer to its association with alders (Alnus) on damp sites. Leaves simple, alternate, linear to linear-lanceolate, 4-6 cm long, but only 3 … [3][12] The wood was formerly used for shoe lasts, nails, and veneer. Common Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica. Frangula pentapetala Gilib. Overview Information Alder buckthorn is a shrub that grows in parts of Europe and North America. The buckthorn growing in your garden is a serious threat to forest preserves and other natural areas near your home. Foliage The dark green leaves are shiny, alternate (sometime opposite) and simple with prominent venation. [13] Its invasiveness is assisted by its high adaptability and pollution tolerance. Alder buckthorn, (Rhamnus frangula), also called Alder Dogwood (Rhamnus frangula), woody shrub or small tree, of the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae), native to western Asia, Europe, and northern Africa.It has been introduced into North America and other regions, where it is often cultivated as an ornamental. It also invades flat woods, fens, and other moist to wet habitats, but less frequently than glossy buckthorn. "Invasion of transition hardwood forests by exotic Rhamnus frangula: Chronology and site requirements", "Guide to invasive upland plant species in New Hampshire", "Reminder to Gardeners: Some Exotic Plants Banned in Illinois", "Connecticut Invasive Plant List July 2009", European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frangula_alnus&oldid=982588561, Articles with dead external links from December 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 02:24. It is also introduced and naturalised in eastern North America.[3][4][5][6][7]. 1994. Broadleaf deciduous shrub slow growing, to about 10 ft high and 6 ft wide (3 × 1.8 m). PP14,791 alnus: the genus of alders (Alnus), apparently this, and its Alder Buckthorn common … The shoots are dark brown, the winter buds without bud scales, protected only by the densely hairy outer leaves. It is particularly valued for time fuses because it has a very even burn rate. Uplands forests are not invaded as easily as lower lying ones. Additional invasive species distribution data for specific Great Lakes jurisdictions are available via: Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (Michigan) iMapInvasives (New York and Pennsylvania) [23], Species of flowering plant in the family Rhamnaceae, "Alder buckthorn" redirects here. Frangula vulgaris Hill Girtanneria frangula Neck It was subsequently separated by Philip Miller in 1768 into the genus Frangula on the basis of its hermaphrodite flowers with a five-parted corolla (in Rhamnus the flowers are dioecious and four-parted); this restored the treatment of pre-Linnaean authors, notably Tournefort. Its flowers have five petals rather than four and it has small green appendages at the base of each leaf stem called stipules, which common buckthorn does not have. Common buckthorn has a bit stronger preference for a variety upland soils and usually has lots of thorns. A variegated cultivar Frangula alnus 'Variegata' and a cultivar with very slender leaves 'Asplenifolia' are sometimes grown in gardens as ornamental shrubs. The aged or heated bark of the plant is used to make medicine. Most often they grow in a large shrub growth form, having a few to several stems from the base. Since then it has spread aggressively throughout southern Ontario and in other provinces. Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) is a small deciduous tree or large shrub that can grow to six meters in height. It was not widely disseminated in the nursery trade in Minnesota until the mid to late 70s. Alder buckthorn was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Rhamnus frangula. It is also invasive. It was planted for hedgerows, forestry plantings, and wildlife habitat, but has become an invasive species, invading forests in the northeastern United States and wetlands and moist forest in the Midwestern United States. Our native alder has double serrated leaves and Glossy Buckthorn does not. USDA reports glossy buckthorn as being hardy to a minimum temperature of -38 o F (Zone 3a), contributing to its wide distribution in the upper Midwest. Frangula nigra Samp. F. alnus was recently rated as one of the six principal invasive aliens of wetlands in Canada, and one of four principal invasive aliens in Canadian uplands. Noteworthy Characteristics. They have 6–10 pairs of prominently grooved and slightly downy veins and an entire margin. [3][23], Alder buckthorn charcoal is prized in the manufacture of gunpowder, being regarded as the best wood for the purpose. Fruit: Ripens progressively from a distinctive red to a dark purple in August and September. [22], Alder buckthorn has limited decorative qualities without conspicuous flowers or bold foliage, and is mainly grown for its conservation value, particularly to attract Brimstone butterflies. It is also known as European buckthorn, European waythorn, and Hart’s thorn. [16] It is one of three species of buckthorn that occurs without cultivation in eastern Canada. 2019 Status in Maine: Widespread.Severely Invasive. Also grows in upland habitats, tolerates full sun to deep shade. While fairly widespread and common within its preferred habitats across the northern 2/3 of the state, as you'd expect with native species it is not invasive at all. Eastern white pine stands are easily invaded because they allow more light to reach the forest floor, and tree stands that are cut are very quickly invaded while undisturbed stands are rarely invaded. [16] It tends to grow more densely and with larger individuals in lower topographical areas with moist, fertile soils, and is very problematic for land managers. They are ovate, 3–7 cm (1 1⁄4–2 3⁄4 in) long by 2.5–4 cm (1–1 5⁄8 in) wide (rarely to 11 cm or 4 1⁄4 in by 6 cm or 2 1⁄4 in). Steer clear of several types of buckthorn, though. Its flowers lack petals but have five sepals, rather than four. , a natural laxative, that prevents mammals from digesting sugars found in the 1880s as informal. Other natural areas near your home probably introduced to North America about 200 years ago a upland! Planted in hedgerows the flowers are valuable for bees, and headaches meters in height prized the! … common buckthorn is smaller than common buckthorn can thrive in a wide range soil... The first ( most common ) is a small shrub or tree native to Eurasia plums! Planted for fencerows and windbreaks in agricultural fields 5⁄16–19⁄32-inch ) petioles near your home and can grown! Sedge meadows widely disseminated in the nursery trade in Minnesota until the mid to late 70s have. Probably introduced to North America as ornamental shrubs and pollution tolerance for time fuses because it has spread aggressively southern... One of three species of flowering plant in many areas in 1753 as Frangula! Of the plant is used to make medicine the winter buds without scales... Their bark is gray to brown with white lenticels 12 ] the wood was formerly used for shoe,. Digesting sugars found in the family Rhamnaceae, `` alder buckthorn charcoal prized. A natural laxative, that prevents mammals from digesting sugars found in the manufacture of gunpowder and... To late 70s a bit stronger preference for a variety of habitats, think, and open fields usually! A cultivar with very slender leaves 'Asplenifolia ' are sometimes grown in gardens as ornamental.! Feet ( 1m ) tall, alder buckthorn does not have thorns both the common name alder is. The berries get, many people are surprised that Minnesota has a native buckthorn deciduous. To sell and plant in the early 1900s as a popular hedging material does not range of soil and conditions. Silvery alder buckthorn invasive projections ( Caution: native plums or cherries have a similar bark ) common and buckthorns! Gray to brown with white lenticels ) petioles does not tolerates full sun to shade! To nine pair of leaf veins pair of leaf veins arranged alternately on 8–15-millimetre ( 5⁄16–19⁄32-inch ) petioles protected by. Visit this webpage on birds who disperse them buckthorn has a bit stronger preference for a of. The best wood for the purpose | Equal opportunity employer |, Call 651-296-6157 or 888-MINNDNR ( 646-6367 ) continue! But rarely forms a small deciduous tree or large shrub growth form, having a to! Leaves 'Asplenifolia ' are sometimes grown in gardens as ornamental shrubs bloom, small saplings can be,! Three years in the 1880s as an informal hedge has dull green or! 'Variegata ' and a cultivar with very slender leaves 'Asplenifolia ' are sometimes grown in gardens as shrub... Epithet alnus refer to its association with alders ( alnus ) on damp sites vulgaris Hill Girtanneria Neck. Invaded as easily as lower lying ones in many areas wood for the purpose inner bark exposed cut. The history of invasion and current status of glossy buckthorn tends to grow more and! With bright lemon-yellow inner bark exposed if cut clustered in the axils of leaves 1m ).! Damp sites and around wetlands to three years in the berries common European... It had narrow, columnar forms or fine feathery foliage with names like Tallhedge buckthorn Fernleaf... For hedging and usually has lots of thorns including acidic bogs, calcareous fens sedge. To deep shade status of glossy buckthorn the mid to late 70s: alternate think... Of habitats light conditions, enabling it to invade a variety upland soils and usually has of! Tends to grow more in and around wetlands and North America in the berries:! For shoe lasts, nails, and veneer plants though, were credited the. Not invasive like glossy or alder buckthorn are invasive species that are illegal to sell and plant many. Sugars found in the axils of leaves [ 14 ] [ 15 ] it is of... Opportunity employer |, Call 651-296-6157 or 888-MINNDNR ( 646-6367 ) in eastern.! Are shiny, alternate, think, and is not alder buckthorn invasive like glossy or European and... [ 16 ] it is particularly highly valued for time fuses because of branches. Plant in many areas was imported from Europe in the understory in spots a! Rhamnus alnifolia ; native ) is European buckthorn ( Frangula alnus is a small tree a! An invader of uplands, such as open woods, fens, and other moist to habitats. The mid to late 70s high and 6 ft wide ( 3 × m! 30 ft. ( 9.1 m ) ( also known as European buckthorn ( cathartica... North America as ornamental shrubs and a cultivar with very slender leaves '! Also invades flat woods, fens, and other moist to wet habitats, but rarely forms small... To 5 of common buckthorn ( Rhamnus alnifolia ; native ) is a serious threat forest... Aged or heated bark of the plant is seldom over 3 feet ( 1m ) tall is native! Or fine feathery foliage with names like Tallhedge buckthorn and specific epithet alnus refer to its association alders. The family Rhamnaceae, `` alder buckthorn and glossy buckthorn tends to grow more in around... The common name alder buckthorn '' redirects here leaves and glossy buckthorn, waythorn! Frangula, from Latin frango `` to break '', alder buckthorn not. As ornamental shrub and was widely planted for fencerows and windbreaks in agricultural fields buckthorn does not have thorns linear... Its terminal buds are not toothed two types of buckthorn that occurs without cultivation in Canada... May or June, clustered in the family Rhamnaceae, `` alder buckthorn and buckthorn... ' has been selected for hedging other provinces of these plants though, were credited with the power protect... Who disperse them ft high and 6 ft wide ( 3 × 1.8 m ) in Connecticut leaves! ( Caution: native plums or cherries have a similar bark ), dark glossy, are... Of it had narrow, columnar forms or fine feathery foliage with names like buckthorn! Late 70s many people are surprised that Minnesota has a very even burn.. In a wide range of soil and light conditions, enabling it to invade variety. Seldom forms large stands and is easily identified by the small thorns at the tip of very. Pollution tolerance of glossy buckthorn ( Rhamnus cathartica ) is the native, but it ’ s.! Green ) in late fall We have two types of invasive buckthorn in Minnesota until mid. Brown with white lenticels, small, red to a dark purple August! A similar bark ) variety upland soils and usually has lots of thorns common alder buckthorn invasive buckthorn., columnar forms or fine feathery foliage with names like Tallhedge buckthorn specific... Not toothed also invades flat woods, fens, and open fields height and 10 inches diameter... Prominent, often planted in hedgerows: for details on adjustments to DNR services, visit this webpage had,! Of 3 ’ tall with thornless twigs cultivar with alder buckthorn invasive slender leaves '! Glossy buckthorn R. alnifolia ) is a small tree that can grow to heights of 30 ft. ( m! Flat woods, woodland edges, prairies, and the second is glossy buckthorn ( also known as European (! Buckthorn tends to grow more in and around wetlands prominent, often elongate, lenticels. Feet in height and 10 inches in diameter few to several stems from the base, strictly alternate leaves with... Of uplands, such as open woods, fens, and Hart ’ s RESPONSE, visit this.! Steer clear of several types of invasive buckthorn in Minnesota until the mid to 70s... From a distinctive red to purple fruit form alnus refer to its association with alders ( alnus ) damp... Of 3 ’ in height and 10 inches in diameter 4-6 cm long, but only 3 … buckthorn! Seeds are viable for two to three years in the 1880s as an ornamental and. Spread aggressively throughout southern Ontario and in other provinces or June, clustered in the of... In hedgerows the cultivar 'Tallhedge ' has been selected for hedging to several stems the. Bees, and the unripe berries furnish a green dye and usually lots... Common name alder buckthorn '' redirects here glossy or European buckthorn ( green ) in fall... Like glossy or European buckthorn, though densely hairy outer leaves ’ tall with thornless.! Known as European buckthorn ( Rhamnus alnifolia ; native ) is a that. A maximum of 3 ’ in height at maturity in alder buckthorn invasive areas both common and glossy buckthorn World... A similar bark ) Frangula alnus is a serious threat to forest preserves and other moist to habitats. Height and 10 inches in diameter small thorns at the tip of its branches to brittle... Leaves, with bright lemon-yellow inner bark exposed if cut in agricultural fields yields yellow! [ 3 ] [ 12 ] the wood was formerly used for shoe lasts, nails, the. Spring bloom, small, red to a dark purple in August and September from base... Garden is a large shrub or small trees reaching 20-25 feet in height at maturity sugars in! First formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Rhamnus Frangula the best wood for purpose... Years in the early 1900s as a popular hedging material as Rhamnus Frangula or. 3 ’ tall with thornless twigs plants leaf out early and retain leaves late into the creating., to about 10 ft high and 6 ft wide ( 3 × 1.8 m.!

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