However, Caesar finally decided to leave Rome and join the army in Macedonia. These accounts were written by various authors throughout and after the history of the Empire. The Parthian general Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, who died at the battle. The Roman forces taunted the Persians, accusing them of cowardice, effeminacy, and telling them that they had sexual relations with their mothers. One of the four consular legions, recruited by Caesar when he was consul in 48. Menu Julius Caesar invades Parthia. Both Labienus and the Parthians were defeated by Publius Ventidius Bassus, who recovered these provinces for Mark Antony. Although he was born to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, Augustus' only daughter, Gaius and his younger brother, Lucius Caesar, were raised by their grandfather as his adopted sons and joint-heirs to the empire. It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most important battles between the Roman and Parthian Empires and one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history. Julius Caesar planned to invade Parthia in 44 BC. A second Parthian invasion of Syria by Pacorus I resulted in the latter's death and Parthian failure. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian Empire established by Alexander the Great. The Dacian Wars were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajan's rule. , The public pretense for the expedition was that less than ten years prior in 53 BC an invasion of the Parthian Empire had been attempted by the Roman consul Marcus Licinius Crassus. [lower-alpha 4] Also Parthia had taken Pompey's side in the recent civil war against Caesar. He is often called "the richest man in Rome". The Gallic War ended with complete Roman victory at the Battle of Alesia. The curia in … Caesar, Pompey and Crassus formed a triumvirate to put an end to political strife. in preparation for his aborted Parthian campaign. In 39 BC, Antony sent Ventidius, who defeated and executed Labienus in a counter-attack, and then drove Pacorus I out of the Levant. The army greeted Octavian enthusiastically. Ancient Rome. Once his campaigns were over, he served as Roman dictator until his assassination on March 15, 44 BC. In a meeting of the Triumvirs Crassus was able to secure the governorship of Syria, a very wealthy area that bordered the Parthian empire. From there, Trajan sent … It is likely that his six legions were sent to a base Caesar had created in Macedonia in 45-44 B.C. By the 1st century BC the Dacians had become the dominant tribe. What exactly Caesar personally wanted out of the Parthian campaign has been a subject of speculation since antiquity.  From 40 to 33 BC Rome and Antony in particular would wage an unsuccessful war with Parthia. While none of Caesar's coins specifically mentions Parthia, I include a coin from a massive issue struck in the four week period February-March 44 B.C. It was to be a massive endeavor with the largest force he had ever led: 16 legions and 10,000 cavalry, in addition to support troops. . Caesar sent the cavalry and auxiliaries under Domitius Calvinus to harry the Parthian forces for several days. Forums.  Although he implies that Caesar's goal was an expansion of the empire, not just its stabilization. Caesar realistically would lead a successful campaign in Parthia until matter’s at home got so drastic he had to return. to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae.Caesar's plan was, after a brief pacification of Dacia, to continue east into the Parthian territory. Speculative History. Caesar in his commentary on the Second Civil War has the following brief mention: ... Had he lived to conduct his own Parthian campaign then we may have had a more fulsome commentary on Crassus’ campaign and its failure. Bestsellers. In the summer of 44, it served under Marc Antony and was defeated at … Crassus knew he could not beat Caesar’s popularity with his wealth alone. As a preliminary, he planned to first invade and conquer the kingdom of Dacia, roughly modern Romania, which he calculated could be accomplished by the end of 44 BC.  Buszard's reading of Parallel Lives also interprets Plutarch as trying to use Caesar's future plans as a case study in the error of unbridled ambition.  It has also been proposed that Caesar knew of the threats against him and felt that leaving Rome and being in the company of a loyal army would be safer, personally and politically. After the defeat of Caesar's assassins at the Battle of Phil… As a preliminary, he planned to first invade and conquer the kingdom of Dacia, roughly modern Romania, which he calculated could be accomplished by the end of 44 BC. This victory at Carrhae placed Parthia on an equal, if not superior footing with Rome, at least for a brief moment in history.   These would be supported by auxiliary cavalry and light armed infantry. One of the reason the conspirators killed Caesar before his Parthian campaign is the fact that they knew that if he accomplished even half of what he said he would do, and returned laden with the unimaginable wealth of the east, then the people of Rome would have made him king without any hesitation. Find your next favorite Podcast Become a member … The campaign was certainly publicly cast as a response to Crassus' bumbling campaign at Carrhae, but the explanations that different sources give for Caesar's personal motive are all different. It was earmarked for Caesar's campaign against the Parthian empire, which was cancelled after the dictatator's death. Had he lived to conduct his own Parthian campaign then we may have had a more fulsome commentary on Crassus’ campaign and its failure.  Plutarch also states that the construction of a canal through the isthmus of Corinth, for which Anienus had been placed in charge, was to occur during the campaign. to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae. With this in mind Caesar planned a great Parthian campaign in c.45 BC, the pretext being to avenge the Roman demise at Carrhae. From the 4th century to the middle of the 2nd century BC the Dacian peoples were influenced by La Tène Celts who brought new technologies with them into Dacia. He needed to win his own glory and gain new riches from a distant land; he had to go back to war.  He used Caesar's proposed invasion plan, of attacking through Armenia, where it was felt the support of the local king could be relied on. Following a similar line of thought in June of that year Caesar temporarily wavered in his intention to leave with the expedition. Rise of Empire Your Favorite General. The Parthian war of Caracalla was an unsuccessful campaign by the Roman Empire under Caracalla against the Parthian Empire in 216–17 AD. The military campaigns of Julius Caesar constituted both the Gallic War and Caesar's civil war. Quintus Labienus Parthicus was a Roman general in the Late Republic period. Julius Caesar planned to invade Parthia in 44 BC. Read unlimited* books and audiobooks on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android.   Caesar intended to leave Rome to start the campaign on 18 March; however, three days prior to his departure he was assassinated. The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae. Following in Alexander’s footsteps was the key to glory.  As Caesar planned to be away for some time he reordered the senate  and also insured that all magistrates, consuls, and tribunes would be appointed by him during his absence. These coins were most likely struck in the fund-raising efforts preparing for the war on Parthia. According to Plutarch in his "Life of Antony", the three military victories of Ventidius over the Parthians singularly resulted in the only award to a Roman general of the triumphal ceremony for victory over Parthians. to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae.  Caesar may have also wished to heal the rift from the civil war, or distract from it, by reminding the populace of Rome of the threat of a neighboring empire. After he learned about his adoption, Octavian decided to move towards Brindisi where he arrived in April. Roman soldiers in Syria, many of whom were former Republicans fighting in the last civil war, joined the force, and the Levant and much of Asia Minor were swiftly overrun by Pacorus I and Labienus, respectively. At its height, the empire spanned Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what are now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Turkmenistan. He was for a time a political ally and later enemy of Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 BC. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Defeat of Rome in the East: Crassus, the Parthians, and the Disastrous Battle of Carrhae, 53 BC at Amazon.com. Podcasts. While none of Caesar's coins specifically mentions Parthia, I include a coin from a massive issue struck in the four week period February-March 44 B.C. The son of Titus Labienus, he made an alliance with Parthia and invaded the Roman provinces in the eastern Mediterranean which were under the control of Mark Antony. While he was losing up to 30,000 irreplaceable men and a foreign war, Octavian was consolidating his hold over the Western empire and the hearts of his fellow Romans. However, neither Crassus nor Mark Antony were in Caesar’s league as generals, while Caesar was Caesar – an all time great military mind. Parthia was no pushover, as evinced by the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, where a Parthian cavalry force of 10,000 had all but annihilated a much larger Roman army of roughly 50,000, led by Caesar’s fellow Triumvir, Crassus. According to Dio, the Roman people's desire for this revenge led to Caesar being given sole command of the Parthian campaign by a unanimous vote. He needed massive funds to achieve Caesar’s wishes, and he demanded 700 million sesterces as the proportion of the funds set aside by Caesar for his Parthian Campaign. Dacians often warred with neighbouring tribes, but the relative isolation of the Dacian peoples in the Carpathian Mountains allowed them to survive and even to thrive. In the 7th and 6th centuries BC it became home to the Thracian peoples, including the Getae and the Dacians. And so this leads us directly to his famed Parthian campaign. Sign In Join. Magazines. Crassus' payoff was to take the campaign against the Parthians who were raiding the Roman province of Syria. The army greeted Octavian enthusiastically. Sheet Music. The core of the campaign history of the Roman military is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, from its initial defense against and subsequent conquest of the city's hilltop neighbors on the Italian peninsula, to the ultimate struggle of the Western Roman Empire for its existence against invading Huns, Vandals and Germanic tribes.  The relationship between the planned Parthian war and his death, if any, is unknown. Burebista was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61 BC to 45/44 BC. After the Parni nomads had settled in Parthia and had built a small independent kingdom, they rose to power under king Mithradates the Great (171-138 BCE). History of Iran: Parthian Empire By: Jona Lendering The Parthian empire was the most enduring of the empires of the ancient Near East. The cavalry of the Gauls were an elite part of their war-band and played a crucial role during Vercingetorix' campaign against Caesar. Velleius Paterculus – History of Rome (first century A.D.) Paterculus was a Roman historian who wrote a short Roman history in two books, circa AD 30, which made mention of the Carrhae campaign. His peers included Marcus Antonius, Marcus Junius Brutus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, the poet Gaius Valerius Catullus, and the historian Gaius Sallustius Crispus. Caesar pressed Pompey to renew them, but Pompey held off, preserving his freedom of action. Julius Caesar (49-44 B.C.) Upload. He commanded troops with Brutus during the Battle of Philippi against the combined forces of Mark Antony and Octavian, Caesar's former supporters, and committed suicide after being defeated by Mark Antony. According to the poet Ovid in Book 6 of his poem Fasti, the battle occurred on the 9th day of June.   As Caesar's greatest internal opposition came from those that believed he wanted royal power, this strengthened the conspiracy against him. The conflicts were triggered by the constant Dacian threat on the Danubian province of Moesia and also by the increasing need for resources of the economy of the Empire.   Malitz, while acknowledging that the Scythia and Germania plans appear unrealistic, believes they were credible given the geographic knowledge of the time. It seems that Trajan and the bulk of his army spent the winter of AD 115–116 there at Ctesiphon, with Trajan occupying the palace of the kings of Parthia. Forget Gaul. The Parthian campaign was the turning point in Antony’s fortunes. It alleged that it had been prophesied that only a Roman king could defeat Parthia. Following the First Punic War, naval battles were less significant than land battles to the military history of Rome due to its encompassment of lands of the periphery and its unchallenged dominance of the Mediterranean Sea. Thread starter Mrbsct; Start date May 3, 2015; Tags caesar invades julius parthia; Home. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, known by the anglicisation Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman general and statesman, whose career was significant in Rome's transformation from a republic to empire. Gaius Cassius Longinus, often referred to as simply Cassius, was a Roman senator and general best known as a leading instigator of the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar on March 15, 44 BC.   The assassination occurred on 15 March 44 BC on the day the senate was to debate granting Caesar the title of king for the war with Parthia. Pompey's success as a general while still young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal cursus honorum. It was the climax of a four-year period, starting in 213, when Caracalla pursued a lengthy campaign in central and eastern Europe and the Near East. The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state in Western Asia that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. Snapshots. Documents. Left to right- Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey. At an assembly in Ctesiphon, Trajan was hailed imperator by the legions. It was earmarked for Caesar's campaign against the Parthian empire, which was cancelled after the dictatator's death. He belonged to the last generation of Roman nobiles who came of age and began a political career before the collapse of the Republic. However, he would never get the opportunity to try: three days before he was to leave Rome for the Parthian campaign, Caesar was assassinated by Roman senators. The Parthian army had success at first, but when a real commander and army showed up (Ventidius with a few legions) This was followed by the civil war, during which time Caesar chased his rivals to Greece, decisively defeating them there. He would experience an accelerated political career befitting a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, with the Roman Senate allowing him to advance his career without first holding a quaestorship or praetorship, offices that ordinary senators were required to hold as part of the cursus honorum. The main Parthian force took charge of Syria and invaded Judea. A member of the senatorial nobility, Pompey entered a military career while still young and rose to prominence serving the later dictator Sulla as a commander in Sulla's civil war, his success at which earned him the cognomen Magnus – "the Great" – after Pompey's boyhood hero Alexander the Great. Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Following an unprecedented and highly successful campaign in Gaul, Caesar became hugely popular with the Roman people. In 53 BCE against Crassus, the Parthians trotted out horse archers and annihilated the Romans. History Themes. Caesar Ascending-Conquest of Parthia, is the second volume of the alternate history series in which Caesar survives the assassination attempt in March of 44 BC and carries out his planned invasion of Parthia. He won key victories against the Parthians which resulted in the deaths of key leaders – victories which redeemed the losses of Crassus and paved the way for Antony's incursions. In 55 and 54 BC, he invaded Britain, although he made little headway. Register. He was the brother-in-law of Brutus, another leader of the conspiracy. Search. Publius Licinius Crassus was one of two sons of Marcus Licinius Crassus, the so-called "triumvir", and Tertulla, daughter of Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus.  However, some of the aspects of Caesar's planned kingship may have been invented after the assassination in order to justify the act. together they kept some semblance of stability in an increasingly unstable Republic. The Gallic War mainly took place in what is now France.  By 44 BC Caesar had begun a mass mobilization, sixteen legions (c.60,000 men) and ten thousand cavalry were being gathered for the invasion. At his death in 44 BC, Julius Caesar had been days away from leaving Rome to embark on a major military operation—the invasion of Parthia. In AD 66, Nero was marshaling his forces for an invasion of… He then pushed into southern Anatolia, still with Parthian support.   [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] Here the ancient sources diverge. Resources. to pay for Caesar's projected Parthian War. , The expedition was planned to take three years. At the time of Caesar’s death, Octavian was designated with Caesar’s troops for the Parthian campaign in Apollonia. It is not inconceivable that Caesar could have accomplished the same in the 40s BC. A Historical Mystery A Military Campaign General History Revolution! to pay for Caesar's projected Parthian War. These wars were critically important in the transition of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.  It was to begin with a punitive attack on Dacia under King Burebista, who had been threatening Macedonia's northern border. After the defeat of the Parthian-backed Pompeians in the Liberators' civil war by Mark Antony and Octavian, Orodes II sent a Parthian force under Prince Pacorus I and the Pompeian general Quintus Labienus in 40 BC to invade the eastern Roman territories while Antony was in Egypt.  It ended in failure and his death at the Battle of Carrhae. Body of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61 BC to 45/44 BC consul in 1. Been a subject of speculation since antiquity decisively defeated a Roman general the... 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