Spaced apart, the Alder Buckthorn stands like a row of soldiers at attention; closer together, the plants weave together to create an impressive screen of bright green, ovate leaves. Leaves simple, alternate, linear to linear-lanceolate, 4-6 cm long, but only 3 … Additional invasive species distribution data for specific Great Lakes jurisdictions are available via: Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (Michigan) iMapInvasives (New York and Pennsylvania) Aggressively invades wetlands including acidic bogs, calcareous fens and sedge meadows. Our native alder has double serrated leaves and Glossy Buckthorn does not. The species is listed as an invasive weed in Tennessee and Wisconsin, USA (Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1996; Hoffman and Kearns, 1997). PP14,791 alnus: the genus of alders (Alnus), apparently this, and its Alder Buckthorn common … These buckthorn species were first brought here from Europe as a popular hedging material. Another common name for Glossy Buckthorn is Alder Buckthorn because from a dist ance, those deep leaf veins make it look like our native Alder (see page 8), but up close, you can see the differences. Alder buckthorn is a non-spiny deciduous shrub, growing to 3–6 m (10–20 ft), occasionally to 7 m (23 ft) tall. Frangula pentapetala Gilib. Appearance Frangula alnus is a large shrub or small tree that can grow to heights of 30 ft. (9.1 m). , Small saplings can be hand-pulled, but control of larger examples is best achieved using herbicides. Both common and glossy buckthorns are tall shrubs or small trees reaching 20-25 feet in height and 10 inches in diameter. Their bark is gray to brown with prominent, often elongate, lighter-colored lenticels. It is also known as European buckthorn, European waythorn, and Hart’s thorn. That is why two buckthorn species -- common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and glossy or alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus and Rhamnus frangula) -- were introduced to North America in the 1800s, but they have become invasive. tall hedge buckthorn This plant and synonyms italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. It was not widely disseminated in the nursery trade in Minnesota until the mid to late 70s. The bark is dark blackish-brown, with bright lemon-yellow inner bark exposed if cut. Alder-leaf Buckthorn seldom forms large stands and is not invasive like Glossy or European Buckthorn is. Unlike other "buckthorns", alder buckthorn does not have thorns. Plants leaf out early and retain leaves late into the fall creating dense shade. Seeds have laxative effect on birds who disperse them. Common buckthorn is primarily an invader of uplands, such as open woods, woodland edges, prairies, and open fields. DNR RESPONSE TO COVID-19: For details on adjustments to DNR services, visit this webpage. Both the common name alder buckthorn and specific epithet alnus refer to its association with alders (Alnus) on damp sites. Hemlock-oak stands, which tend to be older stands of trees, are much less suitable for Frangula alnus because the density of the tree canopy creates a more shady environment that is not as suitable for Frangula alnus. The cultivar 'Tallhedge' has been selected for hedging. Alder buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia; native) is under 3’ tall with thornless twigs. USDA reports glossy buckthorn as being hardy to a minimum temperature of -38 o F (Zone 3a), contributing to its wide distribution in the upper Midwest. Plants have horticultural value and can be grown as an informal hedge. It also invades flat woods, fens, and other moist to wet habitats, but less frequently than glossy buckthorn. Noteworthy Characteristics. Porebski. A variegated cultivar Frangula alnus 'Variegata' and a cultivar with very slender leaves 'Asplenifolia' are sometimes grown in gardens as ornamental shrubs. The fruit is a small black berry 6–10 mm (1⁄4–13⁄32 inch) in diameter, ripening from green through red in late summer to dark purple or black in early autumn, containing two or three pale brown 5-millimetre (3⁄16-inch) seeds. Alder buckthorn was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 as Rhamnus frangula. inval. Steer clear of several types of buckthorn, though. Catling, P.M., and Z.S. It has dull green oval or egg shaped leaves and is easily identified by the small thorns at the tip of its branches. European Buckthorn (green) in late fall We have two types of invasive Buckthorn in Minnesota. , Frangula alnus was probably introduced to North America about 200 years ago, and in Canada about 100 years ago.  Its invasiveness is assisted by its high adaptability and pollution tolerance. It is most often found in woodlands and open fields, where it f… , It invades forests and grows in the understory in spots with a lot of light. It is also invasive. Aggressively invades wetlands including acidic bogs, calcareous fens and sedge meadows. Also grows in upland habitats, tolerates full sun to deep shade.  Although much disputed historically, the separation of Frangula from Rhamnus is now widely accepted, being supported by recent genetic data though a few authorities still retain the genus within Rhamnus (e.g. Alder buckthorn charcoal is prized in the manufacture of gunpowder, and is regarded as the best wood for the purpose. Branches: Buds and leaves are alternate. The flowers are small, 3–5 mm (1⁄8–3⁄16 inch) in diameter, star-shaped with five greenish-white acute triangular petals, hermaphroditic, and insect-pollinated, flowering in May to June in clusters of two to ten in the leaf axils. It is native to Europe, northernmost Africa, and western Asia, from Ireland and Great Britain north to the 68th parallel in Scandinavia, east to central Siberia and Xinjiang in western China, and south to northern Morocco, Turkey, and the Alborz in Iran and Caucasus Mountains; in the northwest of its range (Ireland, Scotland), it is rare and scattered. Also grows in upland habitats, tolerates full sun to deep shade. Bark for medicinal use is dried and stored for a year before use, as fresh bark is violently purgative; even dried bark can be dangerous if taken in excess. , Alder buckthorn charcoal is prized in the manufacture of gunpowder, being regarded as the best wood for the purpose. Common buckthorn can thrive in a wide range of soil and light conditions, enabling it to invade a variety of habitats. It is usually multistemmed, but rarely forms a small tree with a trunk diameter of up to 20 cm (8 in). Glossy buckthorn tends to grow more in and around wetlands. Like many other invasive trees and shrubs, buckthorn leafs out early and retains its leaves into late fall, giving it a much longer advantageous growing season than native plants. Flowers: Inconspicuous, appear in May or June, clustered in the axils of leaves. All of these plants though, were credited with the power to protect against witchcraft, demons, poisons, and headaches. Leaves: Alternate, think, and ovate or elliptic smooth, dark glossy, margins are not toothed. Frangula vulgaris Hill Girtanneria frangula Neck It lacks a thorn at the tip of its branches and its terminal buds are not covered by scales. The shoots are dark brown, the winter buds without bud scales, protected only by the densely hairy outer leaves. It was planted for hedgerows, forestry plantings, and wildlife habitat, but has become an invasive species, invading forests in the northeastern United States and wetlands and moist forest in the Midwestern United States. The aged or heated bark of the plant is used to make medicine.  The wood was formerly used for shoe lasts, nails, and veneer. Appearance: Tall understory shrub or small tree, grows up to 20' high, has a spreading loosely branched crown, often multiple stems at the base. This selection grows 12-15’ tall and 3-4’ wide and has an upright, columnar habit. Uplands forests are not invaded as easily as lower lying ones. Derived from a cross of ‘Columnaris’ (female) and ‘Asplenifolia’ (male) ; reportedly has low seed set and seed is not viable, hence not a potential weed or invasive threat. I have seen plants cut and poisoned by over-zealous invasive species hunters. Noteworthy Characteristics. Leaves stay green late into fall. It is also introduced and naturalised in eastern North America.. Frangula alnus, commonly known as alder buckthorn, glossy buckthorn, or breaking buckthorn, is a tall deciduous shrub in the family Rhamnaceae. It was subsequently separated by Philip Miller in 1768 into the genus Frangula on the basis of its hermaphrodite flowers with a five-parted corolla (in Rhamnus the flowers are dioecious and four-parted); this restored the treatment of pre-Linnaean authors, notably Tournefort. Frangula frangula H.Karst. Common buckthorn (also known as European buckthorn) is a small shrub or tree native to Eurasia. Glossy, oval to obovate, dark green leaves (to 3” long) retain green color well into fall, usually resulting in poor fall color. Introduced to North America as ornamental shrub, often planted in hedgerows. Frangula alnus is commonly called alder buckthorn because it is frequently seen in the wild growing in moist soils near alders (genus Alnus).It is also commonly called glossy buckthorn in reference to its glossy leaves.  Other recorded names include glossy buckthorn and breaking buckthorn; historically, it was sometimes called "dogwood" through confusion of the leaves with those of dogwood Cornus sanguinea. Neither shrub does particularly well on dry sand. Pulling in small infestations (weed wrench), Cut-stump treatment with glyphosate; cut-stump or basal bark spray treatment around the stem with triclopyr, DNR permit to work in public water may be required. 1994. Common, or European, buckthorn, and glossy buckthorn are the two non-native, invasive buckthorn species found in Minnesota. , Galen, a Greek physician of the 2nd century A.D., knew of alder buckthorn, although he did not distinguish clearly in his writings between it and other closely related species. There are eight to nine pair of leaf veins. While fairly widespread and common within its preferred habitats across the northern 2/3 of the state, as you'd expect with native species it is not invasive at all. They have 6–10 pairs of prominently grooved and slightly downy veins and an entire margin. Alder buckthorn may also refer to. The bark yields a yellow dye, and the unripe berries furnish a green dye. Alder-leaved buckthorn is smaller than common buckthorn, only reaching a maximum of 3’ in height at maturity. They became a nuisance plant, forming … Common buckthorn has a bit stronger preference for a variety upland soils and usually has lots of thorns. The buckthorns share a very distinctive winter appearance having nak… But when Frangula alnus invades and grows in these locations, its dense canopy prevents light from reaching the ground and therefore prevents other seedlings from growing. Alder-leafed buckthorn (R. alnifolia) is the native, but it’s not nearly so common as the other two. Appearance Frangula alnus is a large shrub or small tree that can grow to heights of 30 ft. (9.1 m). The flowers are valuable for bees, and the fruit an important food source for birds, particularly thrushes. Popular cultivars of it had narrow, columnar forms or fine feathery foliage with names like Tallhedge Buckthorn and Fernleaf Buckthorn. Alder-leaved buckthorn The native alder-leaved buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia) is less than 1 m (3 ft) tall and has leaves with tiny rounded teeth and 6 or 7 pairs of veins. Common buckthorn is considered an invasive species throughout most of the northeastern and central United States and sou… , Alder buckthorn grows in wet soils in open woods, scrub, hedgerows and bogs, thriving well in sunlight and moderate shade, but less vigorously in dense shade; it prefers acidic soils though will also grow on neutral soils. © 2020 Minnesota DNR | Equal opportunity employer |, Call 651-296-6157 or 888-MINNDNR (646-6367). Since then it has spread aggressively throughout southern Ontario and in other provinces. Alder buckthorn, (Rhamnus frangula), also called Alder Dogwood (Rhamnus frangula), woody shrub or small tree, of the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae), native to western Asia, Europe, and northern Africa.It has been introduced into North America and other regions, where it is often cultivated as an ornamental. , Alder buckthorn has limited decorative qualities without conspicuous flowers or bold foliage, and is mainly grown for its conservation value, particularly to attract Brimstone butterflies. They are ovate, 3–7 cm (1 1⁄4–2 3⁄4 in) long by 2.5–4 cm (1–1 5⁄8 in) wide (rarely to 11 cm or 4 1⁄4 in by 6 cm or 2 1⁄4 in). Fruit: Ripens progressively from a distinctive red to a dark purple in August and September. Seeds have laxative effect on birds who disperse them. Distribution map Synonyms Rhamnus frangula L. Frangula atlantica Grubov Frangula dodonei Ard. For information on the state’s response, visit the Department of Health website. Cut branch exposes yellow sapwood and orange heartwood. F. alnus was recently rated as one of the six principal invasive aliens of wetlands in Canada, and one of four principal invasive aliens in Canadian uplands. There are several native trees and shrubs that … (Rhamnaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence phylogenies. Plants leaf out early and retain leaves late into the fall creating dense shade. Its flowers have five petals rather than four and it has small green appendages at the base of each leaf stem called stipules, which common buckthorn does not have. Frangula alnus Foliage with mature and immature fruit Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Rosids Order: Rosales Family: Rhamnaceae Genus: Frangula Species: F. alnus Binomial name Frangula alnus Mill. Brown bark with elongate silvery corky projections (Caution: native plums or cherries have a similar bark). Frangula alnus is commonly called alder buckthorn because it is frequently seen in the wild growing in moist soils near alders (genus Alnus).It is also commonly called glossy buckthorn in reference to its glossy leaves. Lance-leafed buckthorn ( R. lanceolata ; native) is less than 6’ tall, found in wet areas and on dry limestone slopes, and has alternate leaves, 2-6” long, gradually tapering to a point at the tip. Foliage The dark green leaves are shiny, alternate (sometime opposite) and simple with prominent venation. nom. Its flowers lack petals but have five sepals, rather than four. the Flora of China). Common Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica. After an inconspicuous spring bloom, small, red to purple fruit form. It was introduced to North America in the 1880s as an ornamental shrub and was widely planted for fencerows and windbreaks in agricultural fields. Each berry has two to three seeds. It has 8 or 9 leaf veins rather than the 3 to 5 of common buckthorn. It grows in fens and other wetlands. Seeds are viable for two to three years in the soil.  It is predicted to continue to expand its North American range with time. The first (most common) is European Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and the second is Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus). For all the negative press that buckthorns get, many people are surprised that Minnesota has a native buckthorn. Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) is a small deciduous tree or large shrub that can grow to six meters in height. , Species of flowering plant in the family Rhamnaceae, "Alder buckthorn" redirects here. The genus name Frangula, from Latin frango "to break", refers to the brittle wood.  Frangula alnus and the related species Rhamnus cathartica have been banned from sale, transport, or import to Minnesota and Illinois. Most often they grow in a large shrub growth form, having a few to several stems from the base. Unlike other "buckthorns", alder buckthorn does not have thorns.  It tends to grow more densely and with larger individuals in lower topographical areas with moist, fertile soils, and is very problematic for land managers.  It is one of three species of buckthorn that occurs without cultivation in eastern Canada. , Frangula alnus is one of just two food plants (the other being Rhamnus cathartica) used by the common brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni).  It is considered invasive, but not banned, in Connecticut. Frangula nigra Samp. The seeds are primarily dispersed by frugivorous birds, which readily eat the fruit.. Broadleaf deciduous shrub slow growing, to about 10 ft high and 6 ft wide (3 × 1.8 m). It is particularly highly valued for time fuses because of its very even burn rate. It is particularly valued for time fuses because it has a very even burn rate. Its bark is gray to brown with white lenticels. Glossy, oval to obovate, dark green leaves (to 3” long) retain green color well into fall, usually resulting in poor fall color. The shrubs have spreading, loosely-branched crowns. This plant is seldom over 3 feet (1m) tall. The leaves are arranged alternately on 8–15-millimetre (5⁄16–19⁄32-inch) petioles. Glossy buckthorn The related invasive glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus) has untoothed leaves and flowers with five petals rather than four. Common or European buckthorn and glossy or alder buckthorn are invasive species that are illegal to sell and plant in many areas. , The bark (and to a lesser extent the fruit) has been used as a laxative, due to its 3–7% anthraquinone content. These areas, usually where a tree has fallen, normally allow locally native tree seedlings to grow and eventually fill in the gap in the canopy. Overview Information Alder buckthorn is a shrub that grows in parts of Europe and North America. Generic limits in Rhamnus L. s.l. 2019 Status in Maine: Widespread.Severely Invasive. Most buckthorn varieties are easy-to-grow shrubs that make great privacy screens, backdrops, or hedges, thanks to their dense habit and lustrous, dark-green foliage. Alder buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula), also called Black Dogwood.Frangula Bark, Glossy Buckthorn, Alder Buckthorn, Fernleaf Buckthorn, Tallhedge Buckthorn, Alder Dogwood, Black Dogwood, Arraclán, Arrow Wood, Black Alder Tree, Aulne Noir, Black Dogwood, Bois Noir and Bois à Poudre is a woody shrub or small tree of the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae), native to western Asia, Europe, and … Glossy buckthorn was imported from Europe in the early 1900s as a landscape shrub. The history of invasion and current status of glossy buckthorn, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The buckthorn growing in your garden is a serious threat to forest preserves and other natural areas near your home. "Invasion of transition hardwood forests by exotic Rhamnus frangula: Chronology and site requirements", "Guide to invasive upland plant species in New Hampshire", "Reminder to Gardeners: Some Exotic Plants Banned in Illinois", "Connecticut Invasive Plant List July 2009", European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frangula_alnus&oldid=982588561, Articles with dead external links from December 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 02:24.
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