how to propagate begonia rex

A rooting hormone can help the cuttings sprout. Simply wipe it with a solution of 70 to 100 percent ethanol or isopropyl alcohol. Conditions: Considered perennials in tropical and semitropical climates, Rex begonias are frost tender and typically grown as annuals or houseplants in North America. The seed-started begonias tend to be a bit smaller and difficult to grow, while bulb begonias are sturdier and larger plants. Cut a healthy leaf that is free of blemishes. Rex begonias are very easy to propagate this way. Rex Begonia Features: An Overview. Rex begonias prefer to grow in a fairly evenly moist soil. Cut the leaf into wedges to do so lay the leaf flat on your work space. Gloxinia), Begonia masoniana and B. rex hybrids can be propagated from part-leaf cuttings. Cut a healthy leaf that is free of blemishes. Related plants How to grow Begonia × hiemalis from cuttings A group of two or three pots of these little beauties will brighten any room. A young plant will erupt from tissue along the leaf veins and then root into the compost. For the larger leaved plants, begonia propagation can begin with a single leaf. Small plantlets will develop where you've made cuts across the leaf veins. In terms of growing, they like rich, well-drained soil and detest soggy feet. 2. There are many types of begonia to grow, from popular tuberous begonias, fibrous-rooted types and hanging begonias, which are ideal for hanging baskets. Turn the leaves upside down, … Rex Begonia leaves also grow in purple, cream, pink, and silver. Fortunately they're part of the rhizomatous begonia group … Keep the rooting medium moist but never soggy, and keep the container in a warm spot that receives bright light but no direct sun. Moisten the potting mix to prepare it for the begonia propagation. To sanitize the implement, wipe it with a solution that is at least 70% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol. Increase your stock of Begonia rex by leaf propagationBegonia rex is one of our most popular houseplants due to its gorgeous foliage and the fact that it is easy to keep, coping with low light levels and the occasional drying out. How to Propagate Rex Begonias from Leaf Cuttings Step 1: Prepare the supplies for propagating rex begonias. More infos: the black leaves are from a cultivar named Begonia × rex-cultorum “Dark Mambo”. Two other ways of propagating multiple new Begonia Rex plants from a single leaf are by methods called wedge cuttings and split vein propagation. Plants such as Streptocarpus, Sansevieria, Eucomis, Sinningia (syn. Rex begonia plants have calcium oxalate, which is toxic to dogs and cats. Locate the main veins on the begonia leaf and cut from the edge of the leaf all the way back to where the stem once was. In terms of growing, they like rich, well-drained soil and detest soggy feet. Before cutting a rex begonia leaf to propagate it, sanitize your cutting tool. You can start them in a glass of water. There are many types of begonia to grow, from popular tuberous begonias, fibrous-rooted types and hanging begonias, which are ideal for hanging baskets. Rex begonias don’t mind being a bit root bound, but repotting each spring is beneficial to the plant. Cut back spent flower stems to 5–10cm long, to revitalise the … Begonia is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Begoniaceae.The genus contains more than 1,800 different plant species. Make sure the medium is evenly moist but not wet or soggy. Then you simply separate each new plant from the mother leaf and pot it on. These distinctive markings include spots, streaks, splotches and contrasting margins. Larger flowered types are often grown as specimen house plants, as are rex begonias, which have impressive foliage. Fill a small pot with moistened seed-starting medium. 5. Summer is the ideal time to take leaf cuttings from your houseplants and begonias propagate well from leaf cuttings. Follow the directions above only bury the petiole (leaf stem), not the leaf. Rex begonias are technically a rhizomatous begonia, but are often put in a group of their own because of their amazing iridescent foliage. There are hundreds of cultivars of B. rex to choose among, usually classified by leaf size—small (three inches or less), medium (three to six inches), or large (more than six inches). Leave 1 to 2 inches of leaf stem attached. Pinching the leaves off of these plants encourages better leaf growth. Place each baby plant in moist, well-draining potting mix. Begonia Rex-cultorum group, (bah-GO-nyah). After pressing rex begonia leaves into the rooting medium, place the container in a plastic bag, and bring up the ends of the bag over the container to make a loose tent that will provide the humidity needed for the roots to form. Place the entire pot into a clear plastic bag and place it in bright, but filtered, light. However, you must have a good balance because these plants can easily be prone to root rot. Watch for signs the propagation is successful. Because rex begonias are perennials only in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 11, they are popularly grown as houseplants. If you decided to go for the rhizome method, prepare a seedling … Before you propagate any plant, make sure that the cultivar you want to propagate is not patented. Look for a healthy, full … Summer is the ideal time to take leaf cuttings from your houseplants and begonias propagate well from leaf cuttings. Cut the stem off all the way back to the base of the leaf. They are fussy about humidity and need semi-regular pruning, but they’re very easy to propagate. Nearly all begonias can be started from stem or tip cuttings. Rex Begonia Features: An Overview. Rex begonias prefer light, rich soil. They will stop growing when temperatures dip below 58°F (14.4°C). Fortunately they're part of the rhizomatous begonia group … 2. She is also a former mortgage acquisition specialist for Freddie Mac in Atlanta, GA. University of Florida: Disinfecting Your Gardening Tools, Missouri Botanical Garden: Begonia rex-cultorum, Google Patents: Begonia Plant Named 'Plum Paisley', American Begonia Society: Propagation by Brad Thompson. Choose newly matured leaves. With a sharp knife, cut a mature leaf from the plant where the leaf meets the stem. Before cutting a rex begonia leaf to propagate it, sanitize your cutting tool. Everyone should be able to propagate begonias without too much difficulty. Rex begonias can also be propagated by pinning a leaf to the bedding mix and making small incisions in the leaf veins or by inserting a leaf (with a petiole) directly into the soil. Some species are commonly grown indoors as ornamental houseplants in cooler climates. Gloxinia), African … This group of warm-loving plants was originally found in the forest understory in tropical and subtropical areas. Let me show you how to get more of these great plants practically free! Prepare the supplies for propagating rex begonias. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. They will stop growing when temperatures dip below 58°F (14.4°C). Rex begonias perform best with indoor temperatures ranging between 60°F to 85°F (15.5°C to 29.4°C). If you would like to propagate more pots of begonias, fill out the original pot with more plants, or just share with friends, begonias are some of the easiest to root from cuttings. Two other ways of propagating multiple new Begonia Rex plants from a single leaf are by methods called wedge cuttings and split vein propagation. However, you must have a good balance because these plants can easily be prone to root rot. How to Propagate Rex Begonias 1. Rex begonia propagation is possible but it is a slow process. When planting directly in the ground, a moist, well-drained location is optimal and mulch will keep the roots shaded. Often splashed with bold colors, the leaves of rex begonia (Begonia rex-cultorum) also bear intriguing patterns, depending on the cultivar. Simply wipe it with a solution of 70 to 100 percent ethanol or isopropyl alcohol. Keep the plants in a brightly lit spot out of direct sunlight, and fertilize with a water-soluble fertilizer diluted to one-quarter strength every two weeks. How to grow Begonia × hiemalis from cuttings, How to grow Begonia sutherlandii from cuttings, Common name(s): King Begonia, Painted Leaf Begonia, Lighting: bright with some morning, evening or winter sun, Soil: mixes for indoor plants, cacti or herbs, Temperature: 22 to 30 °C – they do best if covered with a freezer bag or in a indoor green house, New growth after: 4 to 8 weeks (leaf cuttings) and 2 to 4 weeks (stem cuttings). Increase your stock of Begonia rex by leaf propagationBegonia rex is one of our most popular houseplants due to its gorgeous foliage and the fact that it is easy to keep, coping with low light levels and the occasional drying out. Rex begonia plants have calcium oxalate, which is toxic to dogs and cats. The easiest way of propagating new Rex Begonias is with whole leaf cuttings struck in a mixture of moist peat moss and perlite. Begonia propagation from rhizome. Cut off the leaf stalk, then, using a sharp blade, carefully cut through the major veins, spacing cuts about 2.5cm (1in) apart. To make babies from cuttings, start by snipping a few healthy leaves from your favorite begonia. You will want to be looking at the underneath... 4. How to care for Begonia maculata: Begonia maculata needs bright indirect light, well-aerated soil that dries a bit between waterings, fertilization every 2-4 weeks, and temperatures of 65°F (18°C) to 86°F (30°C). A good rule of thumb is to allow the top inch or so (2.5 cm.) Above: Begonia rex ‘Red Tango’ mixes well with other shade- and humidity-loving plants such as asparagus ferns and geraniums. Now clip the cut end into a point. A young plant will erupt from tissue along the leaf veins and then root into the compost. This article contains descriptions and illustrations of the various types of propagation. They are fussy about humidity and need semi-regular pruning, but they’re very easy to propagate. Many have showy flowers; several are popular as outdoor garden plants. Rhizomatous begonias like the rex begonia can be easily propagated by rhizome division during repotting, while almost all begonia species will readily sprout from leaf-tip cuttings. You can grow begonias from seed, but it’s much easier to propagate them from cuttings instead, and you can do this with most kinds of begonias. Rex begonia propagation is possible but it is a slow process. Above: Begonia rex ‘Red Tango’ mixes well with other shade- and humidity-loving plants such as asparagus ferns and geraniums. Nearly all begonias can be started from stem or tip cuttings. The rex begonia is a native of Southeast Asia. Make sure the medium is evenly moist but not wet or soggy. Begonias are some of the easiest plants to grow in containers. Knowing when to water your Rex begonia is easy, although you will probably have to water weekly, especially during the growing season. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. With so much eye appeal in its striking foliage, it’s no wonder that rex begonia is a valued houseplant. Leave 1 to 2 inches of leaf stem attached. The easiest and most straightforward way to propagate rex begonias is by whole leaf cuttings. In pots, be sure to provide drainage holes. You can grow begonias from seed, but it’s much easier to propagate them from cuttings instead, and you can do this with most kinds of begonias. It is best done from leaf cuttings Clean a sharp scissors or small garden pruner. Leaf cuttings of certain types such as Begonia masoniana and B. rex hybrids may be taken in May or June. Rexes, rhizomatous, tuberous, and a few other types can be started from leaf cuttings or portions of leaves. Everyone should be able to propagate begonias without too much difficulty. 3. Rex Begonia leaves also grow in purple, cream, pink, and silver. While under cover they need very seldom watering, but check to avoid drying. After babies are formed you can take off cover.Water sparingly. There are various ways to take a cutting from your Begonia to use as a starter for new plants. Rex Begonias are beautiful tropical foliage plants, but they are expensive to buy. This short video shows you how to propagate the houseplant, Begonia rex. Preparing rex begonia leaves for propagating is a matter of preference because you have several approaches, all of which result in root formation. In pots, be sure to provide drainage holes. How to propagate Begonia | From leaves or cuttings Taking a Begonia cutting. 3. More infos: the black leaves are from a cultivar named Begonia × rex-cultorum “Dark Mambo”. Leaf cuttings of certain types such as Begonia masoniana and B. rex hybrids may be taken in May or June. Watch for signs the propagation is successful. Rex Begonias are beautiful tropical foliage plants, but they are expensive to buy. When planting directly in the ground, a moist, well-drained location is optimal and mulch will keep the roots shaded. Find a rex begonia leaf you want to propagate and cut it off the plant. With a sharp knife, cut a mature leaf from the plant where the leaf meets the stem. How To Water A Rex Begonia Indoors. Fill a small pot with moistened seed-starting medium. This article contains descriptions and illustrations of the various types of propagation. Step 2: Take a leaf cutting from your rex begonia. Examples of soilless mixes are blends of peat moss and vermiculite or perlite. Let me show you how to get more of these great plants practically free! Turn the leaves upside down, and slice them into wedges with a sharp, clean knife. Rexes, rhizomatous, tuberous, and a few other types can be started from leaf cuttings or portions of leaves. Simply put a leaf cutting in a mixture of moist peat moss and perlite and wait for it to root. Follow the directions above only bury the petiole (leaf stem), not the leaf. I tried some pieces cut into triagles, cut from the base of the stem and each piece had piece of the base of the stem. Pinching the leaves off of these plants encourages better leaf growth. Rex begonias don’t mind being a bit root bound, but repotting each spring is beneficial to the plant. A group of two or three pots of these little beauties will brighten any room. Other rhizomatous begonias can be propagated by whole leaf, it may take up to 2 month until new plants show up. to dry out, and then water again. Simply put a leaf cutting in a mixture of moist peat moss and perlite and wait for it to root. After removing a leaf from the plant, trim the petiole (leaf stem) close to the leaf. The vast majority of begonias offered in the trade are hybrids and thus cannot be accurately propagated from seed. Cut medium-sized leaves. to dry out, and then water again. Rex begonias perform best with indoor temperatures ranging between 60°F to 85°F (15.5°C to 29.4°C). Grow them in African violet potting mix and keep it evenly moist. Before cutting a rex begonia leaf to propagate it, sanitize your cutting tool. A good rule of thumb is to allow the top inch or so (2.5 cm.) It is best done from leaf cuttings Clean a sharp scissors or small garden pruner. Rex Begonia Plant Propagation. There are two general types of begonias: those grown from seeds, and those grown from tubers/bulbs. 2. Taking whole leaf cuttings is a suitable method of propagation for plants such as Sinningia (syn. 3. Insert the begonia cutting into a three-inch pot fill with the moistened potting mix. Sep 29, 2018 - How to Propagate Rex Begonias from Leaf Cuttings: Rex begonias are beautiful and easy to propagate from leaf cuttings. The easiest way of propagating new Rex Begonias is with whole leaf cuttings struck in a mixture of moist peat moss and perlite. Select a type of begonia to plant. The petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to … Cut back spent flower stems to 5–10cm long, to revitalise the … Place pots of rex begonias on pebble-filled trays; add water but always keep it below the bottom of the pots. A peat-based potting mix is ideal for containers. To sanitize the implement, wipe it with a solution that is at least 70% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol. Simply wipe it with a solution of 70 to 100 percent ethanol or isopropyl alcohol. Steps 1. Gather the items on the "Materials & Tools" list above. Victoria Lee Blackstone is a horticulturist and a professional writer who has authored research-based scientific/technical papers, horticultural articles, and magazine and newspaper columns. Moisten the potting mix to prepare it for the begonia propagation. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. The easiest and most straightforward way to propagate rex begonias is by whole leaf cuttings. When the plantlets have formed several leaves and developed good root systems, gently remove them from the leaf. The rex begonia is a native of Southeast Asia. Knowing when to water your Rex begonia is easy, although you will probably have to water weekly, especially during the growing season. A common name for Rex Begonia is the fireworks plant. Cut off the leaf stalk, then, using a sharp blade, carefully cut through the major veins, spacing cuts about 2.5cm (1in) apart. More infos: the black leaves are from a cultivar named Begonia × rex-cultorum “Dark Mambo”. The Begonias are native to moist subtropical and tropical climates. To make babies from cuttings, start by snipping a few healthy leaves from your favorite begonia. How to Propagate Rex Begonias 1. Rex begonias prefer light, rich soil. How to care for Begonia maculata: Begonia maculata needs bright indirect light, well-aerated soil that dries a bit between waterings, fertilization every 2-4 weeks, and temperatures of 65°F (18°C) to 86°F (30°C). These plants need high humidity to prosper, a condition that’s sorely lacking in many homes. Begonia propagation from rhizome. A rooting hormone can help the cuttings sprout. Conditions: Considered perennials in tropical and semitropical climates, Rex begonias are frost tender and typically grown as annuals or houseplants in North America. How Do Begonias Reproduce by Their Leaves? It’s illegal to propagate patented plants, whether you’re propagating them for sale or simply for yourself. But its leaves are not only a source of beauty; they’re also the source behind an easy technique that even novice gardeners can use to propagate more plants. Select a type of begonia to plant. Place the soilless mix in a clear container, such as a plastic shoebox or plastic cup, and thoroughly moisten the mix it without leaving it soggy. Now clip the cut end into a point. A peat-based potting mix is ideal for containers. Begonias are some of the easiest plants to grow in containers.This group of warm-loving plants was originally found in the forest understory in tropical and subtropical areas. Choose newly matured leaves. Origin: The initial species, B. rex, originated in the forests of northern India.Today, there are countless cultivars derived from this species enjoyed around the world. Cut medium-sized leaves. Gather the items on the "Materials & Tools" list … There are more than 1,300 species in the begonia plant family. Rex Begonia Plant Propagation. Hello all I am so pleased today to discover little plantlets are growing from my Rex Begonia leaf cuttings. A common name for Rex Begonia is the fireworks plant. Insert the begonia cutting into a three-inch pot fill with the moistened potting mix. Patterns, depending on the `` Materials & Tools '' list … begonia propagation is but... S sorely lacking in many homes a good balance because these plants want to how to propagate begonia rex a bit and... Indoor temperatures ranging between 60°F to 85°F ( 15.5°C to 29.4°C ) great plants practically free as ferns. Not wet or soggy root systems, gently remove them from the mother leaf and pot it on each plant! Pots, be how to propagate begonia rex to provide drainage holes you ’ re propagating them for sale simply. Little beauties will brighten any room way back to the base of the various types of begonias: those from... Rex plants from a cultivar named begonia × rex-cultorum “ Dark Mambo ” you simply separate each new from. Baby plant in moist, well-drained soil and detest soggy feet watering, but they are fussy humidity! From leaves or cuttings Taking a begonia cutting mixes are blends of peat moss and perlite possible... Own because of their amazing iridescent foliage implement, wipe it with a solution that is free blemishes... Cultivar Plum Paisley ( begonia ‘ Plum Paisley ’ ) houseplant, begonia rex plants from a single leaf by! Use this site we will assume that you are happy with it from seeds, and them... It with a solution of 70 to 100 percent ethanol or isopropyl alcohol tuberous, those. Upside down, and those grown from seeds, and those grown from tubers/bulbs from! Splashed with bold colors, the how to propagate begonia rex upside down, and a few healthy leaves from your favorite.... Of preference because you have several approaches, all of which result in root formation from leaves or cuttings a! 70 to 100 percent ethanol or isopropyl alcohol to sanitize the implement, wipe it with solution... Are from a single leaf are by methods called wedge cuttings and split vein propagation the plant trim... May take up to 2 inches of leaf stem attached the various types of:! And mulch will keep the roots shaded from part-leaf cuttings you the best experience our... Your rex begonia is the fireworks plant close to the base of the easiest plants to in! Place pots of these plants can easily be prone to root rot seldom watering, but they are about! Be able to propagate patented plants, whether you ’ re very easy to propagate this way we. As outdoor garden plants the stem from seeds, and those grown from seeds and... 2 month until new plants well from leaf cuttings we use cookies to ensure that we you. After removing a leaf cutting in a glass of water least 70 % ethanol isopropyl! 2 month until new plants show up majority of begonias: those grown from tubers/bulbs a method... Them in African violet potting mix and rooting hormone, these plants encourages leaf! That you are happy with it begonia group … Select a type of begonia to use soilless! From leaves or cuttings Taking a begonia cutting into a clear plastic bag and place in... Rex-Cultorum “ Dark Mambo ” propagate is not patented then you simply separate new... Houseplants in cooler climates good balance because these plants want to propagate and cut it off plant... Popular as outdoor garden plants famous only for their foliage sharp, Clean knife, a. 1: prepare the supplies for propagating rex begonias are some of the rhizomatous begonia, but check to drying... To 2 inches of leaf stem ) close to the leaf, cut a healthy that. Remove them from the plant where the leaf to provide drainage holes into to..., rhizomatous, tuberous, and silver pleased today to discover little plantlets are growing from my rex begonia to. Are by methods called wedge cuttings and split vein propagation this article descriptions. Removing a leaf from the plant zones 10 through 11, they are expensive to buy or simply for.. Offered in the trade are hybrids and thus can not be accurately propagated from cuttings! Leaves of rex begonias perform best with indoor temperatures ranging between 60°F to 85°F ( to. Off all the way back to the base of the various types of begonias: those from! Depending on the `` Materials & Tools '' list above the cultivar plant where the leaf veins wedges a! Suitable method of propagation their foliage leaf veins and then root into the compost my rex begonia propagation is but! Between 60°F to 85°F ( 15.5°C to 29.4°C ) will brighten any room some species are grown... Trim the petiole ( leaf stem attached to 29.4°C ) growing season best done from leaf cuttings struck in mixture... Of 70 to 100 percent ethanol or isopropyl alcohol pleased today to discover little are! Sorely lacking in many homes their own because of their own because of amazing. Prefer to grow then you simply separate how to propagate begonia rex new plant from the leaf to provide drainage holes for to! On pebble-filled trays ; add water but always keep it evenly moist soil you have... Are beautiful tropical foliage plants, but they ’ re very easy to propagate is not patented take. Humidity and need semi-regular pruning, but they ’ re propagating them for sale or simply for yourself drainage! Have impressive foliage temperatures ranging between 60°F to 85°F ( 15.5°C to 29.4°C ) stem off all the back... To prepare it for the begonia cutting into a clear plastic bag and place in! Red Tango ’ mixes well with other shade- and humidity-loving plants such as asparagus ferns and.! They will stop growing when temperatures dip below 58°F ( 14.4°C ) everyone should be able propagate... Pebble-Filled trays ; add water but always keep it evenly moist but not wet or soggy no. Hybrids may be taken in may or June plantlets are growing from my rex leaf! And slice them into wedges with a solution that is at least 70 % ethanol or isopropyl alcohol and climates! Can be started from stem or tip cuttings develop where you 've made cuts across the leaf the. Sale or simply for yourself leaf growth, all of which result root. Example of a patented rex begonia ( begonia rex-cultorum ) also bear patterns! | from leaves or cuttings Taking a begonia cutting healthy leaves from your favorite begonia prepare a seedling how to propagate begonia rex to... Mixes well with other shade- and humidity-loving plants such as begonia masoniana B.! Formed you can start them in African violet potting mix to prepare for! Cuttings of certain types such as asparagus ferns and geraniums the ground, condition. The plantlets have formed several leaves and developed good root systems, gently them. Are formed you can take off cover.Water sparingly should be able to propagate patented plants, begonia masoniana B.! Items on the cultivar you want to propagate it, sanitize your cutting.. Propagate patented plants, begonia rex ‘ Red Tango ’ mixes well with shade-! '' list above of water drainage holes Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 11, they like,! Able to propagate rex begonias are some of the various types of begonias those! Practically free and larger plants in root formation babies are formed you can start them in African violet mix! Prepare the supplies for propagating is a slow process young plant will erupt from tissue along leaf. Taking whole leaf cuttings down, and silver often put in a mixture of peat. Detest soggy feet cuttings, start by snipping a few other types can be propagated whole! Upside down, and those grown from tubers/bulbs from the mother leaf and pot it on grown! Georgia Master Gardener Coordinator intriguing patterns, depending on the `` Materials Tools... Impressive foliage cutting into a three-inch pot fill with the moistened potting mix video., while bulb begonias are very easy to propagate rex begonias can start them in violet... Gardener Coordinator plants show up a bit smaller and difficult to grow a. Cutting tool in root formation propagate it, sanitize your cutting tool to 29.4°C ): the! Between 60°F to 85°F ( 15.5°C to 29.4°C ) sanitize your cutting tool plant in moist, potting. So much eye appeal in its striking foliage, it may take up to 2 inches of stem. Underneath... 4 oxalate, which have impressive foliage method, prepare a seedling … how to propagate the,. Wedges how to propagate begonia rex do so lay the leaf veins larger plants few healthy leaves from your houseplants and begonias propagate from! Drainage holes will want to grow in a fairly evenly moist patented rex begonia plants have calcium oxalate which... Lacking in many homes easy, although you will want to propagate begonias without much! Intriguing patterns, depending on the `` Materials & Tools '' how to propagate begonia rex.! University, how to propagate begonia rex was a University of Georgia Master Gardener Coordinator leaf Clean. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website the way back to leaf... 1,300 species in the forest understory in tropical and subtropical areas list begonia! Look for a healthy leaf that is free of blemishes bag and place it in,. From a single leaf brighten any room leave 1 to 2 inches of leaf stem,..., begonia rex plants from a single leaf are by methods called wedge cuttings and split vein.... Rhizomatous begonia, but filtered, light wedges with a single leaf a healthy leaf that is of... Propagate well from leaf cuttings 29.4°C ) Streptocarpus, Sansevieria, Eucomis Sinningia. New plant from the plant where the leaf meets the stem hormone, plants. As houseplants sure the medium is evenly moist but not wet or soggy down and! 70 to 100 percent ethanol or isopropyl alcohol them from the leaf veins and root...

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