MC rùsheng words became very irregular and unpredictable in Mandarin. A straight horizontal line: ˉ. e.g. Could we explain the discrepancy between MC and Nanjing by proposing that these are not etymologically the same word at all, but that the (originally rusheng) character 拉 meaning "to break by twisting or bending" was borrowed to transcribe a (non-rusheng) northern vernacular or dialect word meaning "to pull" due to vaguely similar sound and meaning? In other cases the words in a phonetic series have very different sounds in any known variety of Chinese, but are assumed to have been similar at the time the characters were chosen. Kind of ironic that as a a native English speaker I'd have this problem, but there it was. Chinese and Vietnamese) to be published by Mouton. China Club More than 50 000 members ! • For this reason, many Koreans think lofty words use 다 ta/da and everyday words use 차 ch'a, although the situation is not that clear-cut. Once I became immersed in Beijing, what helped me most was not consciously acknowledging the tones. Haudricourt’s article, “De l’origin des tons Vietnamien” (1954), upsets the applecart. I used to think the Mandarin tones were very difficult for a foreigner to learn because I hear so many foreigners pronounce the tones incorrectly.  Presumably the second element miàn/men/myǒn 麵 "noodle" was familiar enough to Korean speakers that it made sense to use the standard Sino-Korean pronunciation, whereas the first element ra 拉 was not only unfamiliar but also semantically inappropriate, since by the 1960s the Japanese word rāmen no longer referred to "pulled noodles"; it could thus have been retained as an unanalyzed prefix, as if we were to refer to these noodles in English as "ra-noodles.". I never consciously thought of correspondences between Sichuanese and Mandarin. In Manadarin the polysllabicization is developing for another reason, but coincident with this reduction in the one system. Haudricourt showed that Vietnamese was originally a Mon-Khmer language, and as such, was polysyllabic and non-tonal.  She’s used to this kind of reaction. PRC Mandarin uses 自行車, Taiwanese Mandarin uses 腳踏車, and Cantonese uses 單車. Cantonese is the de factoofficial spoken variety of Chinese along with English. If 拉致 is indeed a relatively recent coinage of Japanese origin, then it is just one more example of the "neo-Sinitic" vocabulary (parallel to neo-Latin vocabulary in the West) that has enriched the Korean language in recent times. Practice using the four Mandarin tones. Writing Chinese in Tibetan: On the alternatives for an Wutun orthography (http://scripta.kr/scripta2010/en/proceedings/proc08v01_009.pdf), 3. Asian Highlands Perspectives. The resulting scarcity of open syllables has been criticized on typological grounds. ). This sounds extreme, but when you realise that bad tones are the norm even for people who've been learning Chinese for years, it becomes apparent that something different needs to be done. Before that it may have been a single language community for the small number of individuals in the cities who communicated in classical written Chinese. So I was not applying "tone-conversion rules from Mandarin", as you put it. “I couldn’t be happier with my life post-retirement,” says Zhang, who was a doctor in the army until 1994. Now that I know much Chinese, I better understand his perspective (but I'd be interested to hear from others if they share this perspective). Although I have no specialist knowledge of China I find this post particularly interesting. For example, I have never heard the second character of the word 上漲 spoken in Cantonese, but if I ever needed to pronounce it in Cantonese Filed by Victor Mair under Language change, Tones. Some highlights: Although many authors have projected this medial back to a medial *-j- in Old Chinese, others have suggested that the Middle Chinese medial was a secondary development not present in Old Chinese. I'm sure she didn't learn the local speech by analyzing sound-correspondences with Mandarin. Matisoff has a book on this topic, I think, and this was a topic of lively discussion in Sino-Tibetan conferences in the 70s and 80s. In Chinese: "一個 平等，以互助而追求共同利益為基礎的社會" ( Translated into English, the Chinese here says: "an equal, on mutual assistance and devotion to the common good based society," like the German, with adjectival clause preceding the noun "society". 26-30). Editors traditionally suppress indications of tone for Chinese words included in English running text, so unless you actually take up the study of Chinese you will be forced to ignore them, except to realize that some spellings may look alike but not actually be pronounced the same way because they vary in tone. Because of the above described phenomena and increasing polysyllabicization, some scholars have even mentioned to me that they think northern Mandarin, at least around Beijing, is evolving into a stress language rather than a tonal language, though I haven't seen any papers or books that document this development. These cases are definitely not considered Sino-Korean vocabulary even if they are loanwords (ultimately) from Chinese. Figure 1: Homophone density in Standard Chinese (ignoring tones), based on the analysis of 6000 characters listed in Da (2000). mā . Following the traditional analysis, the rhyme groups are organized into three parallel sets, depending on the corresponding type of coda in Middle Chinese. Has any (further) serious work on the topic been done? Angela Goh Wednesday, April 12, 2017 1 /14. This process is thought to have begun sometime in the Tang period in at least some dialect families. Strikingly red. Instead I listened and just tried to emulate the speech. Compare the case of 짜장면/자장면 tchajangmyǒn/chajangmyǒn, which is directly taken from Chinese 炸醬麵 zhajiangmian without a doubt. One of these scholars, Duan Yucai, stated the important principle that characters in the same phonetic series would be in the same rhyme group,[q] making it possible to assign almost all words to rhyme groups. (http://bit.ly/19rwAlC), 4. Some Chinese antique pottery dates back more than two thousand years although much antique porcelain comes from the 15th century onward. a trochaic rhythm) correlates with such features such as atonality, polysyllabic words (typical of a synthetic language), etc. (In modern Mandarin, the pronunciation jū is usually encountered in the wild only when talking about Chinese chess, but that is presumably irrelevant here. Proto-Min voicing is inferred from the development of Min tones, but the phonetic values of the initials are otherwise uncertain. Surely your mother would have been able to do the same sort of thing? (If I am misreading his data and somebody would like to correct me, please go ahead.) To maintain a distinction, MC tones split according to voicing of initial consonants. The oldest surviving Chinese verse, in the Classic of Poetry (Shijing), shows which words rhymed in that period. When You Are Old, Chinese, and Gay. So how, then, do we explain the discrepancy between written sources for MC that give 拉 as rusheng and the absence of the glottal stop in Nanjing? It was helpful, but just listening to the lilt of the Shandong dialect is also helpful.  He was by training a botanist, and studied Asian languages as a sort of avocation. Pulleyblank initially proposed that type B syllables had longer vowels. Making mistakes where you say a word with the wrong tone is common, and part of the learning …  The easy aspects are: no verb conjugation, no articles, no grammatical gender, and virtually no word endings. a length distinction of the main vowel. A word-for-word translation: "My wife (old lady) will kill me." Mandarin tones in four- to seven-year-old children* FEI CHEN Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China GANG PENG Key Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China, and … This is the view of August Conrady and Fangkui LI. But Jiang isn’t fazed. Tonality could well be a Sprachbund feature that varies and changes in relation to the larger social context, which includes speakers of other languages, rather than exclusively as a feature of any particular language. But when I taught my half-German grandson, whose first language was German, the four tones, he picked them up very quickly and correctly. The distinction has been variously ascribed to: A reconstruction of Old Chinese finals must explain the rhyming practice of the Shijing, a collection of songs and poetry from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.  • This pattern explains 다 ta/da being used in words like 茶房 다방 tabang "teahouse", which originally referred to the court pharmacy, or 茶毘 다비 tabi, a Buddhist term for cremation from the Pali jhāpita. (Sino-)Japanese 一石二鳥 isseki nichō one-stone two-birds. "For example, both Persian and Greek lost almost all their inflections after Alexander the Great, at a time when the societies of Middle Persian and the Greek koine were becoming very different from those of the Achaemenian Empire and the Greek city states, in terms of the sizes of the arenas in which people interacted. He also showed that the tones in Vietnamese came about through lost final consonants. Although rhymes in the Shijing usually respect these tone categories, there are many cases of characters that are now pronounced with different tones rhyming together in the songs, mostly between the departing and entering tones. I’ve wondered whether it is harder for a Mandarin speaker to learn German than it is for a Mandarin speaker to learn English. Recently we've had several discussions about how tones in Sinitic languages aren't as uncomplicated or inflexible as one might imagine or as is often claimed: "Mandarin by the numbers" 2nd. Mei Tsu-lin supported this theory with evidence from early transcriptions of Sanskrit words, and pointed out that rising tone words end in a glottal stop in some modern Chinese dialects, e.g. An OC final -s ( or h as well as -s) was also lost by MC, so that only the earlier concomitant intonation survived, hence qusheng 去聲 [VHM: "leaving / falling tone"]. Chinese Antiques. As a student of the Chinese language , the hardest part to differentiate is first, second, and fifth tones. are known as "softened stops" due to their reflexes in Jianyang and nearby Min varieties in northwestern Fujian, where they appear as fricatives or approximants (e.g. —– So this distinction may be a Korean innovation. For simplicity, only Middle Chinese finals of divisions I and IV are listed, as the complex vocalism of divisions II and III is believed to reflect the influence of Old Chinese medials *-r- and *-j- (see previous section). High quality, fast and easy, free download, huge selection and free downloads. Annie Jones took the stage during Tuesday's episode (June 23) of America's Got Talent to audition with Tones and I's "Dance Monkey.". Thus, the lexica indicate only four tones. I met Haudricourt once, in Paris, through the good office of Alain Peyraube, and I admired him greatly.  Laurent Sagart knew him well and admired him very much. In modern Mandarin, the pronunciation jū is usually encountered in the wild only when talking about Chinese chess, but that is presumably irrelevant here. I am Chinese and have studied French and German. Evidence from early loans into Yao languages suggests that the softened stops were prenasalized. Your example of 라면 ramyǒn illustrates this, though it is a hybrid example: the Sino-Korean reading of 麵 면 myǒn, which is a recognizable morpheme meaning 'noodles', was preserved in preference to myen or men which would be closer to the Chinese or Japanese pronunciations. This distinction (literary / vernacular) doesn't seem to correspond to the situation in Korean (human / non-human). Written Tibetan (of the 9th century) or Old Tibetan (of the 7th or 8th century in the Dunhuang manuscripts ) evidently had no tones. Daniel, I haven't had a chance to drill him myself yet, but I'm convinced if I drilled him for a few days, he'd get it right. (1) I am somewhat surprised that the commentators on Thai tones failed to mention Fang-kuei Li’s classical articles: “The hypothesis of a Pre-glottalized Series of Consonants in Primitive Tai” Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, 11 (1943) :177-188; “Laryngeal Features and Tonal Development” BIHP 51(1980) : 1-13. We who've been educated in the West tend to be very analytical. His knowledge of Chinese history is so-so. White skin is a very long-honed determinant of beauty in China, and spans back to a time long before the first white dude ever set foot in North America. Worth to read. In 1940, Karlgren published the first complete reconstruction of Old Chinese in a dictionary called the, Karlgren originally postulated Old Chinese consonant clusters with, Originally proposed as voiced and voiceless fricative initials in, Baxter and Sagart derive the additional aspirated initials from consonant clusters and the softened stops from. Daniel,  In this article, we will cover Chinese numbers 1-100 and everything you need to know about Chinese numbers! @Lazar (http://bit.ly/148O3JZ).  Download Free Chinese Ringtones to your Android, iPhone and Windows Phone mobile and tablet. (In Ming dynasty vernacular literature, "to pull" seems to have become entrenched as the most common meaning.). Or on related topics, such as, for example, the informally acquired L2 Mandarin spoken by older L1 speakers of Turkic, Tungusic or Mongolic languages within China? Fascinating.  To get started on learning Chinese tones, check out my beginners guide to tones here. If I had written this, I would have given it the parenthetical title: "Or, Why I'm Never Attempting to Learn Chinese". The primary sources of evidence for the reconstruction of the Old Chinese initials are medieval rhyme dictionaries and phonetic clues in the Chinese script. translations of Haudricourt's articles (including the 1954 articles on We’ll tell you about why the tones are so important and give you multiple tips to sound like a native.  He marched to a different drummer and tended to be ostracized by “establishements”, both academic and otherwise. It's not hard for me to remember words in German or French, but I have difficulty remembering when a noun takes le or la or die, der, or das. Vietnamese became monosyllabic and tonal through contact with tonal languages such as Thai and Chinese. Skin tone chart has been used to identify races since a long, long time. Using the wrong tones in your spoken Chinese is similar to putting the emphasis on the wrong syllables in English. The Vietnamese counterparts of the rising and departing tones derived from a final glottal stop and *-s respectively, the latter developing to a glottal fricative *-h. an iambic rhythm) correlates with tonogenesis, monosyllabic / sesquisyllabic words (typical of an isolating language) etc. Other Chinese languages have up to ten distinct tones. there might be some in the thesis, actually). This medial was unevenly distributed, being distinctive only after velar and laryngeal initials or before -ai, -an or -at. Thus when learning new vocabulary , it is really important to practice both the pronunciation of the word and its tone. Each character's "assigned" tone is simply learned when you study or "acquire" Chinese.  He suggested that the departing tone words in such pairs had ended with a final voiced stop (*-d or *-ɡ) in Old Chinese.   Still, it does seem that stress and melodic contours are assuming greater weight now than in the past. Deep red lips + well-placed highlights. Also, word order in English seems much closer to Mandarin, than German (It’s been years since I took German & my 1st language is English.). This suggests that the final syllable in these languages is the most prominent one. Li was the Herman Colitz Professor at the Summer Institute of Linguistics of 1977 sponsored by the Linguistic Society of America. Throw Away Any Premade “Flesh Tone” Paints The same word, said in a different tone, can mean something else. It is assumed that the first three differed in level and/or contour. This character is read p'il in Sino-Korean pronunciation. I was at that meeting. Tones. English changed in comparable ways after the Tudors, under the Stuarts (the century when public nonconformist Protestantism broke out from under the control of Tudor controlled Protestantism).  :). This is taken (following André-Georges Haudricourt and Sergei Yakhontov) to indicate that Old Chinese had labiovelar and labiolaryngeal initials but no labiovelar medial. This is very much like the Middle Chinese (601) tone system, with ping, shang, qu, ru 4 tones and two registers. It has not yet acquired the position in Chinese language-teaching it arguably needs, so that the language may begin to be taught and indeed learned in a more comprehensive manner. Can you really be so sure that she wasn't analyzing sound correspondences, at least at some level? My question concerns the reason why the "usual" reading of 拉 in Korean should be 랍/납 rap/nap, rather than 라/나 ra/na. High and level. The retroflex and palatal sibilants were treated as a single series in the later rhyme tables. , As Middle Chinese g- occurs only in palatal environments, Li attempted to derive both g- and ɣ- from Old Chinese *ɡ-, but had to assume irregular developments in some cases. Pulleyblank supported the theory with several examples of syllables in the departing tone being used to transcribe foreign words ending in -s into Chinese. This adds up to four MC tones. Translation for: 'first tone in old Chinese phonetics; (of a Japanese accent) having a low, flat tone' in English->Japanese (Kanji) dictionary. The four tones of Mandarin Chinese are the essential building blocks for mastering the language. 1st. 思而不學則殆, indeed. She did tell me that she noticed that many of the words and constructions in Cantonese were from archaic Chinese, The Shandong speech I heard was just as different from Mandarin as Cantonese, much more different than the Sichuan or Hunan speech I have heard, but I feel sure I would have been able to speak it if I had stayed longer among Shandong people. He had studied in Hanoi after WW II, was passionately opposed to the Vietnam War, and for that reason refused to visit the US until Matisoff prevailed upon him to attend the Berkeley meeting in 1992. It is the language of choice for education, business, government, and the media. ^ I think (1) is oddly stated… better to say that tonal contour and subsequently "register" are considered to have been new realizations of earlier, segmental contrasts, the former involving syllable-final segments like laryngeals, the latter initial voicing/murmur. Did it take you longer to remember the Cantonese tones for characters that don't follow a predictable pattern of correspondence with Mandarin tones (e.g. Here I will present some general tips and suggestions for improving flesh tones in your own artwork, based on their Old Master techniques and methods. In contemporary Korea tea is usually not part of 차례 ch'arye. This stands in sharp contrast to Southern Chinese varieties, which, if they are in contact with non-Sinitic languages, are as a rule in contact with languages whose tone systems are often quite elaborate (For instance, with various Hmong-Mien and Tai-Kadai languages). 市 vs. 是)? Jerry Norman often pointed out to me Chinese linguistics as practiced by the Institute of History and Philology has a deeply ingrained conservative streak. He can't get the 3rd tone. Tonogenesis became a hot topic in the sixties and seventies of the last century, when it began to be thought that most or perhaps all tonal systems in East Asian languages were ultimately secondary. "Just a note about 拉 la1 'pull': It is true that this character is given a rusheng (entering tone) reading in the Guangyun and other Middle Chinese written sources; in the transcription Laurent Sagart and I use it is MC lop. )'; 撩 liāo 'to raise (one's dress, a curtain, etc. If you cannot use Chinese characters, it is preferable to use the Pinyin with tones.Only use the Pinyin without tones if there's no other option (e.g. @Jongseong Park As the name for a noodle dish, 라면 ramyǒn seems to be a prime candidate for spoken rather than written borrowing. Middle Chinese tones and final consonants of IE stems; ... Old Chinese vowels corresponds nearly (cf. My mom learned Cantonese as an adult, in her late 20s. Highly recommended is the English translation of this by Christopher Court: “Two-way and Three-way Splitting of Tonal Systems in Some Far Eastern Languages (Translated by Christopher Court).” In Tai Phonetics and Phonology, edited by Jimmy G. Harris and Richard B. Noss, 58–86. In the rhyme tables, the palatal allophone of. Instead of the glottal stop initial *ʔ- and fricatives *h- and *ɦ-, he proposed uvular stops *q-, *qʰ- and *ɢ-, and similarly labio-uvular stops *qʷ-, *qʷʰ- and *ɢʷ- in place of *ʔʷ-, *hʷ- and *w-. There are four main tones and one neutral tone in mandarin Chinese (or, as some say, five tones). While superseded in China, some of these old pronunciations are still in common use around the world. The word “Mandarin” actually has two meanings when referring to language. Don’t match your hair color to your skin tone. I picked it up by ear. Standard dictionaries give the pronunciation of all these compounds with C. chē, J. sha. Bangkok: Central Institute of English Language, Mahidol University, 1972, "but more generally initial laryngeal features: voicing yes, but also glottalization and aspiration.". Thanks for pointing to that thesis. According to the Wikipedia article, it is a Chinese–Tibetan–Mongolian mixed language. But after a year I was speaking English like the other children. He doesn't drop low enough. Other scholars have suggested that such contacts are due to dialectal mixture, citing evidence that *-n had disappeared from eastern dialects by the Eastern Han period. "But this is a case that demonstrates how excessive reliance on MC written sources can lead us astray in dialectology. For example, although Old Chinese is believed to have had both voiced and voiceless nasals, only the voiced ones yield Middle Chinese nasals, corresponding to both sorts of proto-Min nasal. ————————- Finals of divisions I, II and IV occurred only in rows 1, 2 and 4 of the rhyme tables respectively, while division III finals occurred in rows 2, 3 or 4 depending on the initial. VHM quotes Alex Schuessler as saying, "syllables beginning with today's l- (e.g., lí-kai ["leave"]) can only end up in Mandarin tone 2, there is no tone 1 beginning with l- (except for a few rare, odd exceptions, perhaps).". Julie, I'm not sure what rule there is if any when the word containing 車 doesn't refer to the vehicle specifically. Many non-native Chinese speakers have difficulties mastering the tones of each character, but correct tonal pronunciation is essential for intelligibility because of the vast number of words in the language that only differ by tone (i.e. For example, the following dental initials have been identified in reconstructed proto-Min:, Other points of articulation show similar distinctions within stops and nasals. (Some dictionaries give “ratchi” らっち or even “rōchi” ろうち as alternative pronunciations, either of which could correspond to the rusheng pronunciation of 拉, but I have never heard anyone pronounce it as anything other than “rachi.”). The tonal situation in Early (now usually called "Old") Chinese has been a source of controversy. As far as spoken language is concerned, it may have made a lot of progress towards becoming one since the Cultural Revolution. (I found some discussion on the etymology of Korean ramyǒn here: Free mobile download from our website, mobile site or Mobiles24 on Google Play. Each rhyme group was named after one of the corresponding, Li Fang-Kuei's revision of Karlgren's notation, "Appendix A: A Concise Introduction to Old Chinese Phonology", "Tones and prosody in Middle Chinese and the origin of the rising tone", "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese, part 2", "Reconstructing Old Chinese uvulars in the Baxter-Sagart system", "Introduction to Chinese Historical Phonology", International Institute for Asian Studies, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, The Baxter-Sagart reconstruction of Old Chinese, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_Chinese_phonology&oldid=982173783, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, the presence or absence of a prefix. This convinced me that foreign devils have much to contribute to Chinese studies — it is not their learning, but their insight. Scholars have attempted to determine the phonetic content of the various distinctions by examining pronunciations in modern varieties and loans in Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese (the Sinoxenic materials), but many details regarding the finals are still disputed. So even if 拉 isn't a commonly used character nowadays except in the derivatives of 拉致 napchi, its Korean pronunciation would still have been established in the numerous Korean character dictionaries produced throughout the centuries, based originally on the Korean approximation of MC and then carried through the subsequent sound changes of Korean of course. In 100 years time it will be trivial to find out how people spoke today rather than all the educated guesswork and reconstruction that is occuring with Old Chinese, PIE, etc. The researchers also fished out a ’90s-era Game Boy cover, construction-site helmets and a toilet seat, as well as a number of objects with Japanese and Chinese inscriptions. There are many, many more tonal languages in the world. (For example in an ordinary VO-compound, the second part carries emphasis, exactly like in any language with a verb followed by an object the object carries phrasal stress.) For example, the Middle Chinese palatal sibilants appear in two distinct kinds of series, with dentals and with velars:[k], It is believed that the palatals arose from dentals and velars followed by an Old Chinese medial *-j-, unless the medial *-r- was also present. 摧枯拉朽), while "to pull" started to become more common from the Song dynasty onwards. The victim suffered major injuries that left her in critical condition, requiring weeks of recovery in an intensive care ward. The systematic study of Old Chinese rhymes began in the 17th century, when Gu Yanwu divided the rhyming words of the Shijing into ten rhyme groups (yùnbù 韻部). In 停車場 정거장 chŏnggŏjang, which refers to bus or train stops, it is 거 kŏ/gŏ. I find that my habit of trying to figure out pronunciations based on Mandarin equivalents can cause these sorts of issues, and I would be curious to learn whether Mandarin L1 speakers learning Cantonese have similar problems. The Korean pronunciation of Chinese characters is usually taken to originate in MC pronunciation, so it is not surprising that 拉 is 랍/납 rap/nap in Korean. I struggled greatly with tones for the six months that I attended classes for Chinese Mandarin. This is what you find in the south. More importantly, I would suggest this is one variety of a general process that often kicks in when the amount of public oral interaction in a language increases significantly. To the best of my knowledge, Chinese and Japanese don't make this distinction. Professor Mei Tsu-lin's remark– that although Haudricourt's Chinese scholarship was so-so, and Max Weber's knowledge of Chinese history was so-so, they nonetheless contributed important insights to Chinese studies– made me think of the Chinese philosopher Mou Zongsan's remarks about Hegel. If such varieties are tone-free, or even if they exhibit simplified tone systems, it would be indirect evidence in favor of my hypothesis. These glottal post-codas respectively conditioned rising and falling pitch contours, which became distinctive when the post-codas were lost. As you see, in northern Chinese MC tones reshuffled themselves, merged and split to wind up with 4 tones again; some Shandong dialects of Mandarin are said to have three tones. "eine egalitare, auf gegenseitiger Hilfe und Hingabe fur das Wohl der Gesamtheit grundete Gesellschaft" (here the adjectival clause describing the noun "Gesellschaft (society)" precedes the noun). Haudricourt also suggested that the Chinese departing tone reflected an Old Chinese derivational suffix *-s. Because of these splits in pingsheng, syllables beginning with today's l- (e.g., lí-kai ["leave"]) can only end up in Mandarin tone 2, there is no tone 1 beginning with l- (except for a few rare, odd exceptions, perhaps).
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