progressive parallelism in psalms

The nature of Hebrew poetry was recognizedin the 12th century by Ibn Ezra and by Kimchi inthe 13th century, but it was m… But, that’s not exegesis. I will leave out the verse numbers in order to more accurately portray what his original audience would have received (albeit, in English). According to this view, the book of Revelation consists of seven sections which run parallel to each other, each of which depicts … The reason, I believe, that he eschews exegesis at this point is that the grammar undermines his assertion. But, what should be immediately apparent is that this idea stems from a system devised by an allegorist for the primary purpose of advancing an agenda. _____ The famous Big Ben chimes are the most … Progressive parallelism - there are several varieties, the most common being: a. Stairlike 1) Composed of several lines, each providing a complete element of the aggregate or composite thought 2) Notice Ps 1:1, "Blessed is the man..." a) "Who WALKS not in the counsel of the ungodly" b) "Nor STANDS in the path of the sinners" c) "Nor SITS in the seat of the scornful" b. I have become like a man who does not hear, and in whose mouth are no rebukes. Parallelism in Psalms. Bib. I just wanted to inform you that I had to make many translatory improvisations in the Telugu version of your book […], Legal Stuff: The documents contained in this website are the property of Jim McClarty and Grace Christian Assembly. And(kai) I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army. Hebrew parallelism is discussed below here. And(kai) the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. Cyc. Notice Ps 1:1 2 Let us come before him with thanksgiving and extol him with music and song. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God. I. SYNTHETIC PARALLELISM Psalm 38:13-15 But I am like a deaf man; I do not hear, like a mute man who does not open his mouth. However, Psalm includes clearly dividable 116 poems which have superscriptions such as titles and comments. This type of construction the least common of the different types. The system of interpretation of the book of Revelation which seems most satisfactory to me (though it is not without its difficulties) is that known as progressive parallelism, ably defended by William Hendriksen in More Than Conquerors, his commentary on Revelation. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself. (96:1), D. Progressive: two synthetic parallel lines (example: Psalm 126: 4-6), "Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it, Except the Lord keep the city, the watchman wakes in vain." And(kai) again they said, Alleluia. "Some trust in chariots and some in horses, But we will remember the name of our Lord." What they will discover is that there is nothing in the text to indicate where the chapter should start, nor anything that would cause them to conclude that midway through this description John broke from his chronology and started recapitulating something he must have previously written. The theory postulates that the book of Revelation is meant to be divided into seven recapitulations of the era between Christ’s passion and the introduction of the “age to come.”. However, none of these authors manages to give a textual reason for the theory of repetition they all espouse, made especially difficult for them when you consider John’s constant use of conjunctions to tie each section together. And it is true that the Second Coming of Christ has been referred to in the previous chapter (see 19:11-16). “As the deer pants for streams of water, so my soul pants for you, O God” (Psalm 42:1). Rather, Revelation 20:1 takes us back once again to the beginning of the New Testament era.” (pp. The third part repeats the first part and the fourth part repeats the second part. In other words, they rely on the rather random chapter and verse divisions, of which John’s First Century audience would have been completely unaware. : 2 Let us come into his presence with thanksgiving; let us make a joyful noise to him with songs of praise! For the ancient Hebrews, poetrywas typically not based on rhyme, but on a conceptknown as parallelism. Parallelism: pairing of a line with one or more lines that are linguistically equivalent, A. Synonomous: two lines repeating the same text (example: Psalm 59), Nor chasten me in your displeasure." Jim – Yes, I’m familiar with Hendrickson. And(kai) I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. He is considered the father of the allegorical method of Bible interpretation. And(kai) to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. Parallelism; or, Parallel Lines. The psalms are Hebrew poems. Late in the Fourth Century, Tyconius created his seven rules of bible interpretation. And(kai) I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God; That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great. Some Types of Parallelism in the Psalms. Synthetic parallelism as a category collects various forms for extending the relationship of parallel members beyond a simple two unit structure (see Fig. Most lines have two segments, though some have three or four, and a few have only one. And(kai) he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years. Example: Psalms 24:2 Antithetical parallelism - The truth presented in one line is strengthened by a contrasting statement in the next line. The alternate parallelism employs the ABAB pattern. 6. 702. There are numerous types of parallelism used in Hebrew poetry, including synonymous parallelism, emblematic parallelism, and antithetical parallelism. (38:1) B. Antithetical: statement followed by its opposite (example: Psalm 49: 6-10) English uses parallelism quite often, as in the proverb “like father, like son.” A. This is where the parallelism consists only in the similar form of construction:-Psalms 19:7-9.-"The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul: The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple. A Hebrew poem’s basic unit is a poetic line. Specification defined “In the parallelism of specification, each succeeding stich makes more specific what the opening stich states in general. Neither have they proven that John’s intention was to start recapitulating at the precise point where Chapter 20 starts. The alternate parts may be either synonymous or antithetic. (38:1), B. Antithetical: statement followed by its opposite (example: Psalm 49: 6-10). These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone. The reason that’s germane to our present discussion is that the sixth of Tyconius’s seven rules states, “What appears to be sequence may actually be recapitulation.” Augustine adopted the interpretive principles espoused by Tyconius and developed the fundamentals of what has come to be known as Amillennialism on that basis. Comparative Parallelism (usually called ‘emblematic parallelism’) involves a simile or a metaphor. And(kai) cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season. His repetitive use of the very same conjunction argues convincingly that John’s intention was to recount a succession of events that ran chronologically. And(kai) he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. It’s simply not in the text. Tyconius was one of the earliest theologians to challenge the chiliastic view. Figure 1. Psalm 81.6a: Observations on Translation and Meaning of One Hebrew Line - P. A. H. de Boer The Role of Elihu in the Design of the Book of Job - N. C. Habel The Redactional History of Isaiah 5.1-10.4 - C. E. L'Heureux The Semantic Parallelism of Psalm 89 - D. Pardee Joshua 24 and the Problem of Tradition in the Old Testament - J. Give light to my eyes, or I will sleep in death, 3 Consider and … And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. As has been indicated above, however, chapters 20-22 comprise the last of the seven sections of the book of Revelation, and therefore do not describe what follows the return of Christ. And(kai) he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. Your cooperation is greatly appreciated! Types of parallelism and classification of Psalm 62.11-12; Middleton, Tracie. (Rev 19:1-20:4). It does not come from applying straight-forward exegesis to the pertinent texts. Nor chasten me in your displeasure." 1. 3. This form of sacred writing has been noted from the earliest times. Let’s start reading at Revelation 19: 1 and follow John’s use of this conjunction. His student, a fellow named Tyconius, of the sect of the Donatists, had a great deal of influence on Augustine. a. Psalms 9 and 10 are together making one acrostic psalm. By the way, it’s easy to test my contention. His theory of progressive parallelism is shared by Hoekema, Riddlebarger, and others. Dandi Moyers . In our language, parallelism is the repetition of certain sentence parts for rhetorical effect. cf. You know, when an Arminian argues that way, utilizing the same “follow my system” approach, we Reformed folk jump all over them to point out their error. Example: Psalm 1:6 Synthetic parallelism - The first and second lines are related–such as cause and effect or suggestion and conclusion. And it seems to me that they are much too reliant on divisions of John’s letter that are not obvious in the original text. EXAMPLE: The daughter of Zion is left A: like a booth in a vineyard B: like a hut in a cucumber field The statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart: The commandment of the Lord is … And(kai) the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. Poetry is a highly stylized form of writing usedby many cultures, each having their own uniquemethods of conveying information. Find someone who is completely unfamiliar with the Bible; someone who has never read the book of Revelation before. To Understand Psalms, Find & Compare Parallel Elements. 12:28). Our friend in India has been hard at work updating the translation of By Grace Alone. “For the LORD knows the way of the righteous, But the way of the ungodly shall perish.” Psalm 1:6 Psalms > Info on Psalms > Examples of Parallelism. ... Psalm 96:1-2a Sing to the Lord a new song; Sing to the Lord, all the earth. Psalm 2:1-3 • Antithetic Parallelism - In this feature the second line is the opposite of the first. As the name implies, this type has the second or parallel line saying about the same thing as the first—for emphasis. However, because such a conclusion runs contrary to his system, Hoekema dismisses the idea of chronology and argues for the consistency of the system rather than the consistency of the text. And(kai) a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great. A. Synonomous: two lines repeating the same text (example: Psalm 59) _____ _____ "O Lord, do not rebuke me in your wratch. This is similar to the way Hebrew parallelism in the Psalms organizes and structures ideas. He contended that the millennial period was being fulfilled in the present age and that the thousand years mentioned in Revelation 20 were not meant to be understood literally (based on the allegorical hermeneutic he adopted from Origen). But for you, O LORD, do I wait; it is you, O Lord my God, who will answer. Often, the parallelism is synonymous —the same idea is restated in different words, side by side (see Psalm 40:13 ). The Reformed exegete will usually argue from the text and carefully prove that the original author’s intentions are best demonstrated by the words they chose to use. There is absolutely nothing in the text that would indicate that the Apostle John is suddenly beginning to repeat information he had purportedly cited six previous times in this epistle. So, that’s where the rubber hits the proverbial road, exegetically speaking. Parallelism: pairing of a line with one or more lines that are linguistically equivalent. He writes, “Greetings in our Lord’s name. And short of that proof, the only reason to insist that Revelation 20:1-6 is a retelling of previous information is because your system demands it. (20:7), C. Synthetic: an extension of the same thought in one line: (example: Psalm 148), _______________________ / _________________________, "O sing unto the Lord a new song; sing unto the Lord, all the earth." I am glad to write to you after so many years. Hebrew poetry such as that used in various books of the Old Testament books like Proverbs and Psalms uses several forms of parallelism, including synonymous parallelism , antithetical parallelism, synthetic parallelism , and emblematic parallelism . Psalm 27:5, For in the day of trouble he will keep me safe in his dwelling; he will hide me in the shelter of his tabernacle and set me high upon a rock. a. hymns of praise Historically, the notion that John’s Apocalypse included several recapitulations was unknown to the early church. His views were published by the Roman emperor (primarily for political advantage) and Augustine’s eschatology has been standard Catholic dogma ever since. (Psalm 18.27)These two lines are parallel (each word or phrase corresponds to a word or phrase in the other line) but instead of saying the same thing twice the psalmist expresses the opposite or contrasting idea in the second line. Climactic Parallelism The 2nd line repeats the 1st line with the exact same words plus a conclusion. The progression of chimes through each hour creates a kind of time parallelism. (effect) Progressive parallelism - There are several varieties of this form, the most common being: Stair-like - Composed of several lines, each providing a complete element of the aggregate or composite thought. Look on me and answer, LORD my God. Antithetical parallelism provides an antithesis, or contrast. A. Milne’s words, “You are braver than you believe, stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think,” also exhibit parallelism in their three clauses. And(kai) the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia. In his book, The Bible and The Future, Hoekema wrote, commenting on Revelation 20:1-6: “The premillennial interpretation of these verses understands them as describing a millennial reign of Christ on earth which will follow his Second Coming. Then, give them the pericope cited above and ask them to find the chapter division. And(kai) after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God: For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. Upon the initial reading of this work, one may be tempted to conclude that the theme or purpose of the poem is the transcendent nature of God. The following examples, being close translations of the original text, will better illustrate Hebrew parallelism than does our Douai version which (in regard to the Psalms) has reached us through the medium of a Latin translation of the Septuagint Greek: And, I would contend that that is the only way a First Century reader, unaware of the artificial division created by the demarcation of “Chapter 20,” would have understood John’s words. Q – Are you familiar with William Hendrickson’s interpretive approach to Revelation (perhaps not originating with him) called “progressive parallelism”? 1). 1:6; 32:10; 34:10, etc. Psalms In biblical literature: Psalms Synonymous parallelism involves the repetition in the second part of what has already been expressed in the first, while simply varying the words. If, then, one thinks of Revelation 20 as setting forth what follows chronologically after what has been described in chapter 19, one would indeed conclude that the millennium of Revelation 20:1-6 will come after the return of Christ. This parallelism is often progressive like stairs that lead to or descend from a central point. b. Psalms 114 and 115 are together, both being Hallel Psalms. Parallelism is a poetic literary device that is used to strengthen an idea. Parallelism is pervasive throughout many of these poetic books and contributes meter and cadence to the poem. The thought expressed in one line is compared to that of … Psalm 139, is attributed to King David of Israel. No opponent of the premillennial view has offered a sufficient reason to ignore John’s conjunctions. : 2 Let us come before his presence with thanksgiving, and make a joyful noise unto him with psalms. Proverbs is especially full of these: In the way of righteousness is life, And in its pathway there is no death (Prov. III. The idea of recapitulation, introduced by Tyconius in the Fourth Century, has been kept alive by contemporary writers, such as Hoekema, Riddlebarger, and Hendrickson. Thanks, By Grace Alone – Telugu translation update. In his book Reflections on the Psalms, C. S. Lewis gives a quick definition of parallelism as: “the practice of saying twice the same thing in different words”. Use of this conjunction numerous types of parallelism and classification of Psalm 62.11-12 ; Middleton, Tracie two segments though! 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