repetition effect psychology

The JND measure, as an index of discrimination sensitivity, was calculated by a half of the duration difference between the 25 and 75% points of the fitted response curves. Psychology repetition effects - Der Testsieger unserer Tester. doi: 10.3758/s13414-019-01899-x, Schindel, R., Rowlands, J., and Arnold, D. H. (2011). Copyright © 2020 Jia, Deng, Wang, Zang and Wang. Atten. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.11.006, Grotheer, M., and Kovács, G. (2014). Psychol. We suggest this outcome indicates that pseudowords are processed at the component level whereas words are processed holistically in a duration judgment task. 8, 110–116. However, the constituent repetition of words did not show a duration compression. Moreover, as per the attentional-gate model, when more attentional resources are given to the non-temporal features of an unexpected stimulus, less attention is devoted to the temporal features. Last but not least, repetition conditions did not influence JNDs, F(3, 54) = 0.57, p = 0.64, ηp2 = 0.03. 364, 1841–1851. R. Soc. doi: 10.3758/s13414-013-0602-2, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Birngruber, T., Schröter, H., and Ulrich, R. (2015). The influence of stimulus repetition on duration judgments with simple stimuli. In the present study, however, we ask the question as to whether familiarity mediates the effect of constituent repetition in a duration judgment task. doi: 10.1037/0097-7403.18.2.134, Wu, Y., Tsang, Y. K., Wong, W. K., and Chen, H. C. (2016). 70, 77–87. Repetition as an outcome/ in the service of the pleasure principle - an affirmation, a basis for change. In summary, the present study provides clear evidence that the repetition of words and pseudowords promotes analogous duration compression, indicating that familiarity per se does not interact with the effect of the whole repetition in duration judgment. We suggest that the implicit expectation may encompass words at a configural and/or holistic level in duration judgment. doi: 10.1080/016909699386185, Keywords: duration judgment, repetition compression, constituent repetition, Chinese, predictive coding, Citation: Jia L, Deng C, Wang L, Zang X and Wang X (2020) The Modulation of Stimulus Familiarity on the Repetition Effect in Duration Judgment. 18, 1237–1252. Monogr. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049362, Rao, R. P. N., and Ballard, D. H. (1999). However, when standard and comparison pseudowords share a constituent character, the surprise prediction error is only partial. doi: 10.3758/bf03210972, Treisman, M. (1963). To examine the familiarity-by-repetition interaction in duration judgment, Experiment 1 compared the repetition effect of Chinese words with that of pseudowords in a duration discrimination task. Consequently, it is unlikely that memory-related factors influenced the present findings, as short ISIs (300–500 ms) were used across all experimental conditions. Spaced repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material; this exploits the psychological spacing effect.Alternative names include spaced rehearsal, expanding rehearsal, graduated intervals, repetition spacing, repetition scheduling, spaced retrieval and expanded retrieval. Es ist jeder Psychology repetition effects rund um die Uhr bei zu haben und kann sofort bestellt werden. 34, 6640–6646. And it may explain why, at least sometimes, we tend to prefer things that are already familiar to us. The psychophysics toolbox. This outcome is the opposite effect commonly observed in the classic duration compression of repeated stimuli. Applied to the present study, we observed a discrepancy between the standard stimulus and two comparison conditions, namely, the constituent repeated and novel stimulus. Predictable events elicit less visual and temporal information uptake in an oddball paradigm. In the sequence, the standard stimulus was displayed for a fixed duration of 600 ms, followed by a 300–500 ms interstimulus interval (ISI). Daniel H. Spieler is now at the Department of Psychology, Stanford University. This illusory truth effect is well established; however, it has been argued that repetition will not affect belief in unambiguous statements. Psychology repetition effects - Vertrauen Sie unserem Sieger. h�b```e``` � {�400103�0pd�v>�6-_��!��34�B@ ��Z � 6�� ,Ԭ����৑�U&>��k}�f�� f� A possible explanation for this disparity stems from the idea that semantic-related judgment of words, such as lexical decision, requires a deeper level of processing because each constituent morpheme must be interpreted. Four experiments were done to investigate the effects of repetition on judgment of recency (JOR). In this model, a switch connects the pacemaker and the accumulator by switching on and off to count the pulses generated by the pacemaker. In novel trials, the standard and comparison words/pseudowords were different (e.g., the standard: /mu 4 tou 1/, meaning “wood”; the comparison: /zhu 1 bao 3/, meaning “jewelry”). (2015). Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, N.S.W., 2006Search for more papers by this author. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. In other words, neural responses are suppressed for the predicted signals (repeated stimuli) and activated or even enhanced for the surprising stimuli (oddball/novel stimuli). However, (ii) familiarity does mediate the effect of constituent character repetition in duration judgment as observed in Experiment 2. However, the attentional account does not explain the fact that the influence of constituent repetition led to different outcomes in the word and pseudoword conditions. h�bbd```b``*�� �� ̎ �,@��W���_�� �~X��� ���q�/� {�� More specifically, the effect on duration estimation following the repetition of a stimulus is not proportionally influenced by the familiarity that the observer may have with it. When introducing a further experiment with two new conditions in which the standard–comparison pair shared a character at the first or second constituent position, we observed a shorter subjective duration for whole word (or whole pseudoword) repetition compared with the remaining conditions (i.e., first-character repetition, second-character repetition, and novel baseline). All participants were native speakers of Chinese, with normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Neuroimaging evidence for dissociable forms of repetition priming. J. Exp. Psychol. For instance, memory-related factors such as the ISI between the standard and comparison stimuli have been shown to affect the repetition effect, as demonstrated in a study by Matthews (2015) where the repetition effect in the short (e.g., 306 ms) and long (e.g., 2,000 ms) ISI conditions were compared. This rotation direction repetition effect was independent of stimulus repetition or related perceptual processing but, rather, was due to increased efficiency in the mental rotation process per se. Psychol. Sci. To answer the questions aforementioned, the present study adopted Chinese two-character words and pseudowords. Bull. Neural mechanisms for visual memory and their role in attention. Along with a similar method, namely, two-interval paradigm, Jia and Shi (2017) showed that participants tended to underestimate the apparent duration of the repetition of familiar stimuli (i.e., Chinese character). 53 0 obj <>stream Regarding the analysis of the PSEs, the results revealed a significant main effect of repetition, F(1, 19) = 5.40, p < 0.05, ηp2 = 0.22. J. Neurosci. Vis. repetition effect in speeded-choice tasks by examining the pattern of interaction between repetition and other variables following Steinberg's additive-factors method (Sternberg, 1969). Philos. %PDF-1.5 %���� Psychology repetition effects - Der absolute Favorit unter allen Produkten. (2017). More specifically, in Experiment 2a, we administer four experimental conditions: whole-word repetition, first-character repetition, second-character repetition, and novel baseline. Results of Experiment 2b. The psychology of misinformation — the mental shortcuts, confusions, and illusions that encourage us to believe things that aren’t true — can tell us a lot about how to prevent its harmful effects. J. Exp. The divergence between the current and previous studies is likely due to the different levels of processing specific to the requirements of each task. The words/pseudowords (each was used twice as the comparison stimulus) were randomly assigned to the comparison durations in each condition. Psychology repetition effects - Der absolute Favorit der Redaktion. Next, the comparison stimulus was presented for one of the five possible durations – 400, 500, 600, 700, or 800 ms – which was followed by a 500 ms blank interval. Humans exhibit enhanced memory performance when information is encoded by physically enacting it, as opposed to passively reading or hearing the same information; an effect referred to as “enactment effect.” The present study explored the effects of language (native vs. non-native) and semantic repetition (repeated vs. non-repeated) on the enactment effect in action memory. Unsere Mitarbeiter haben es uns zum Ziel gemacht, Verbraucherprodukte aller Art ausführlichst zu testen, dass Sie als Kunde auf einen Blick den Psychology repetition effects bestellen können, den Sie als Kunde kaufen wollen. The results are discussed on the basis of the predictive coding theory. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). This study was supported by the Nature Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province in China (Grant Nos. Cortex 20, 2145–2165. But nowhere does rhythmic repetition mesmerize us more powerfully than in music, with its singular way of enchanting the brain. Further evidence that the effects of repetition on subjective time depend on repetition probability. The experimental procedure adopted in Experiment 2 was identical to that used in Experiment 1, except for the experimental conditions, that is, four experimental conditions under word category (Experiment 2a) and another four experimental conditions under the pseudoword category (Experiment 2b). Lang. The mean PSEs (±SE) were 610 (±10), 561 (±11), 572 (±9), and 557 (±11) ms, for word repetition, first-character repetition, second-character repetition, and novel baseline conditions, respectively (Figure 3). (2019). doi: 10.1080/23273798.2016.1227857, Zakay, D., and Block, R. A. For this reason, it is essential to use duration judgment tasks to investigate whether stimulus familiarity mediates the repetition duration effect. While repetition effects are difficult to observe for very high and very low levels of perceived truth, our results suggest that repetition increases participants’ internal representation of truth equally for all statements. Cogn. doi: 10.3758/BF03196844, Ulrich, R., and Bausenhart, K. (2019). |, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). 10, 433–436. Figure 1. The analysis failed to reveal any significant difference of PSEs between the first-character repetition and second-character repetition (corrected p = 0.212), between the second-character repetition and novel baseline (corrected p = 0.189), and between the first-character repetition and novel baseline (corrected p = 0.676). endstream endobj 42 0 obj <>stream In other words, the subjective duration of whole-repeated stimuli was perceived as being shorter than the other two stimuli, whereas the presentation of the constituent repeated stimulus was perceived as shorter than the novel, in the pseudoword condition. On this note, it is possible that when the standard and comparison words share only a constituent character in a duration judgment task, the latter is processed as a novel stimulus. In Experiment 2b, we adopt the same design used in Experiment 2a and test the constituent repetition effect for pseudowords containing two unrelated characters. (A) The fitted curves show the mean proportions of “long” responses against the comparison durations in the conditions of Wr, FCr, SCr, and Nb. Repetition results in Time perception: the surprising effects of surprising stimuli. Despite the fact that the foundation for the repetition effect on time duration still remains a subject of debate, three main accounts have been put forward. The test session lasted about 50 min. To further investigate whether familiarity mediates duration perception when a pair of stimuli share a common constituent character, Experiment 2 compares whole repetition, first-character repetition, and second-character repetition for words (Experiment 2a) and pseudowords (Experiment 2b). Note that we designed the first- and second-character repetition as two separate conditions to avoid inconsistent results regarding the interaction between constituent position and repetition effect as reported in previous studies (Zhou et al., 1999; Wu et al., 2016). (2011). Lang. 間隔反復(かんかくはんぷく、英: spaced repetition )、分散学習(ぶんさんがくしゅう、英: spaced learning )、間隔伸張法、間隔をあけた復習とは、前の学習から、その学習内容の復習までの間隔を延ばしてゆくことにより、心理学の Repetition-priming effect: a cognitive task for the definition of a clinical assessment Silvia Pagani 1 - Michela Balconi 1, 3 - Matteo Sozzi 2 Stefania Bianchi-Marzoli 4 - Lisa Melzi 4 - Massimo Corbo 2 1epartment of Psychology To illustrate, using the oddball paradigm, Tse et al. A version of the Hebb repetition task was used with faces to explore the generality of the effect in a nonverbal domain. (B) The bars indicate the mean points of subjective equality (PSEs), and their corresponding standard errors in each condition (all *p < 0.05). Thirty-nine students from Jiangnan University volunteered to take part in the experiments (20 in Experiment 2a and 19 in Experiment 2b; 24 females; mean age: 21.6 years). What is more, until now, most empirical evidence for the constituent repetition effect comes from studies using various non-temporal tasks (Zhou et al., 1999; Tsang et al., 2014; Wu et al., 2016), such as the study by Zhou et al. Some support was found for this prediction. The phenomenon of repetition suppression, a reduction in neural activity when stimuli are repeated, is thought to depend on processing overlaps between repeated items and is generally considered to be the neural correlate of repetition priming. This is important because the extant line of investigation has mainly focused on the effects of whole-stimulus repetition (e.g., picture, simple symbol, and character). Percept. 360, 815–836. 1, 1–11. Over and above that, words are composed of constituent characters with a familiar linkage, leading to a more effective performance when words are processed holistically, as compared with when they are processed at the morpheme level. Unsere Redaktion an Produkttestern unterschiedliche Hersteller ausführlichst verglichen und wir zeigen unseren Lesern hier die Resultate unseres Vergleichs. JANE E. KASSERMAN, AND WAYNE A. MRACEK Experiment 1 showed that repetition can make an item seem either more recent or less recent than a nonrepeated item, depending on presentation spacing. 8:1915. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01915, Tenpenny, P. L. (1995). In Experiment 2, we examined the constituent repetition effect when the standard–comparison stimuli shared the first or second constituent character. BK20160171 to LJ and BK20191485 to LW) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. Psychology Definition of REPETITION EFFECT: Material which is presented in a repetitive way tends to be better understood, leading to improved memory of the material. Psychol. The only effect of repetition is an increase in magnitude of the strength of the memory trace, and the effects of any given + 50 Dough L Hinaman. R. Soc. From the fitted curves, the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the just-noticeable difference (JND) were estimated. Twenty students from Jiangnan University volunteered to take part in the experiment (six females; mean age 23.4 years). No significant difference in PSEs between the first- and second-character repetitions was found (mean differences: 8 ms, corrected p = 0.224). Figure 2. Temporal discrimination and the indifference interval: implications for a model of the ‘internal clock’. This was discussed by numerous ancient and medieval thinkers and was demonstrated empirically by Hermann Ebbinghaus, the first researcher to carry out a prolonged series of experiments on human memory. Previous research has consistently demonstrated a repetition effect; that is, faster responses to a stimulus when the stimulus–response pairing is repeated than when a new pairing is involved (Schacter, Chiu, & Ochsner 1993). Across two experiments we investigate the role of psychological distinctiveness on the Hebb repetition effect. 22, 3–38. It is important to highlight that these studies demonstrated the repetition duration compression (Matthews and Gheorghiu, 2016) and explained the phenomenon with bases on the predictive coding account (Schindel et al., 2011; Pariyadath and Eagleman, 2012; Jia and Shi, 2017; Saurels et al., 2019). Google Scholar | Crossref | Medline | ISI Dannenbring, G. L. Briand, K. (1982). Repetition compulsion is psychological phenomenon in which a person repeats a traumatic event or its circumstances over and over again. Birngruber, T., Schroter, H., and Ulrich, R. (2014). J. Vis. 10, 14–23. (1985 b). In other words, familiar stimuli (e.g., words) tend to be processed at an integrated level, whereas unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., pseudowords) are processed at the component level. Experiment 1 showed that repetition can make an item seem either more recent or less recent than a nonrepeated item, depending on presentation spacing. Percept. (1999), which found the repetition effect in an identification task even when the standard and comparison words shared only one constituent character (e.g., “-magnificent” vs. “-luxurious”). Psychol. As an example, in a duration discrimination task, in which the participants had to respond whether the presentation time of the comparison stimulus was shorter or longer than that of the baseline, Birngruber et al. Duration compression induced by visual and phonological repetition of Chinese characters. (1991). Perceived duration is reduced by repetition but not by high-level expectation. The repetition of a stimulus often produces a shorter subjective duration than does the presentation of a novel item. This effect is observed with various visual and auditory stimuli ranging from simple to complex forms. Stimulus repetition and the perception of time: the effects of prior exposure on temporal discrimination, judgment, and production. Specifically, the question is to what extent familiarity interacts with the repetition duration effect. The repetition of a stimulus often produces a shorter subjective duration than does the presentation of a novel item. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhj117, Orfanidou, E., Marslen-Wilson, W. D., and Davis, M. H. (2006). Fourth, the Fourth, the main effect of awareness was significant [ F (1,43 = 14.88, p < .001) , η Psychiatr. What is more, the new findings presented point to a different direction from those studies that employed lexical decision tasks, where greater repetition facilitation for words relative to pseudowords was observed (Henson et al., 2000; Fiebach et al., 2005; Orfanidou et al., 2006). This work was supported by National Institute on Aging (NIA) Grants PO1 AGO3991 and RO1 AG10193, NIA Training Grant Wir haben eine große Auswahl an Hersteller & Marken unter die Lupe genommen und wir präsentieren Ihnen hier unsere Resultate. doi: 10.1037/xge0000041, Matthews, W. J., and Gheorghiu, A. I. Last but not least, the predictive coding account suggests that the expected stimulus produces a shortening of subjective duration to optimize coding efficiency, a process within which the magnitude of the repetition duration effect depends on the similarity between the standard and comparison stimuli (Rao and Ballard, 1999; Friston, 2005). Neuropsychologia 51, 59–66. Motiv. doi: 10.3758/BF03211951, Tsang, Y. K., Wong, A. W.-K., Huang, J., and Chen, H.-C. (2014). Opin. Jeder unserer Redakteure begrüßt Sie zu Hause zu unserem Test. Cortex 16, 1797–1808. Curr. The mean PSEs (±SE) were 594 (±15), 552 (±12), 585 (±16), and 554 (±13) ms for repeated-word (“Rw”), novel-word (“Nw”), repeated-pseudoword (“Rp”), and novel-pseudoword (“Np”) conditions, respectively. The observable effect of repetition on truth ratings is greatest for items near the midpoint of perceived truth, and small or nonexistent for items at the extremes.

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