The method of retrieving the electrical energy depends on how it will be used. This DC current is fed to the rotor / armature to create an electromagnetic field in addition to the rotating magnetic field of the rotor / armature. As the name implies, this component regulates the output voltage of the generator. (b) Overhead Valve (OHV) Engines versus non-OHV Engines – OHV engines differ from other engines in that the intake and exhaust valves of the engine are located in the head of the engine’s cylinder as opposed to being mounted on the engine block. This is the user interface of the generator and contains provisions for electrical outlets and controls. Cooling & Exhaust System It is important to understand that a generator does not actually ‘create’ electrical energy. The st e art function of a generator is battery-operated. (b) Ball Bearings versus Needle Bearings – Ball bearings are preferred and last longer. The National Electric Code (NEC) mandates that a minimum space of 3 feet should be allowed on all sides of the generator to ensure free flow of cooling air. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydropower. The cooling system and raw water pump should be flushed after every 600 hours and the heat exchanger should be cleaned after every 2,400 hours of generator operation. Not every device will work with a hand-powered generator -- only ones that draw the kind of current and voltage put out by the generator will work. The main components of an electric generator can be broadly classified as follows: The engine is the source of the input mechanical energy to the generator. This doesn’t affect bladeless wind turbines, any limitation associated with the “wake effect” is avoided. These need to be freestanding and should not be supported by the engine of the generator. • Low noise during operations (You'll learn more about how the generator works later.) Control Panel Therefore most of nuclear power plants operates a single-shaft turbine-generator that consists of one multi-stage HP turbine and three parallel multi-stage LP turbines, a main generator and an exciter.HP Turbine is usually double-flow reaction turbine with about 10 stages with shrouded blades and produces about 30-40% of the gross power output of the power plant unit. You might think that, of all this work, Tesla would have held his inventions in electrical engineering -- those that described a complete system of generators, transformers, transmission lines, motor and lighting -- dearest to his heart. Located in Brighton, Colorado. IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY! A turbine’s efficiency comes from how well it captures the power of the wind and turns it into a rotational torque that can then push electrons out from the generator and into the grid. The size of the engine is directly proportional to the maximum power output the generator can supply. How the Gas Generator Produces Electricity Air-fuel mixture ignites. WHAT IS A WIND TURBINE? This point can not be emphasized enough as carbon monoxide poisoning remains one of the most common causes for death in post hurricane affected areas because people tend to not even think about it until it’s too late. Solar’s modular concept for gas turbine generator sets has been optimized for transportation and civil works resulting in shorter installation and commissioning times, and reducing overall costs for our customers. All rights reserved. When you refill the fuel tank, ensure metal-to-metal contact between the filler nozzle and the fuel tank to avoid sparks. Common features of the fuel system include the following: In the following sections, we will look at how a generator functions, the main components of a generator, and how a generator operates as a secondary source of electrical power in residential and industrial applications. (ii) By permanent magnets – This is common in small alternator units. (a) Stator – This is the stationary component. When you add a load to a generator, its output voltage dips a little. As the output of the generator increases, the voltage regulator produces less DC current. By providing your email you consent to receiving occasional promotional emails & newsletters. Remote Monitoring Of Used Industrial Generators, Shipping Industrial Generators to Customers, Outside Field Service Sales Representative – Industrial Generators. A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The energy can then be transferred to a generator where electricity is produced. And this doesn’t have to be a strong wind, either: the blades of most turbines will start turning at a wind speed of 3-5 meters per second, which is a gentle breeze. There are several factors that you need to keep in mind while assessing the engine of your generator. Let’s take a step-by-step look out how a generator works using the diagram above: (1) Point 1, from the figure above, is a spinning rotor that is attached to the turbine shaft. Just good stuff. The current is created due to a law of electromagnetism called Faraday’s Law of Induction, discovered in the 1800’s. For all other common applications, both residential and industrial, a standard radiator and fan is mounted on the generator and works as the primary cooling system. With a gasoline-powered generator, an internal combustion engine drives a rotating shaft that turns the armature. So, the faster the copper coil rotates, the more electric current will be created. Turbine is a rotary mechanical device which extracts energy from fluid flow converts it into useful work. Exhaust pipes are usually attached to the engine using flexible connectors to minimize vibrations and prevent damage to the generator’s exhaust system. A wind turbine is a machine that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electricity.The blades of a wind turbine turn between 13 and 20 revolutions per minute, depending on their technology, at a constant or variable velocity, where the velocity of the rotor varies in relation to the velocity of the wind in order to reach a greater efficiency. The turbine inside the generator rotates from an source of mechanical energy, which causes the copper coil to rotate within a magnetic field, which produces an electric current. The answer to that is a definite, “It depends.” No doubt, … (a) Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine – The supply line directs fuel from the tank to the engine and the return line directs fuel from the engine to the tank. This cycle continues till the generator begins to produce output voltage equivalent to its full operating capacity. Get more expert information and stay on top of green energy news. If the float voltage is very high, it will shorten the life of the battery. This increases wear and tear and more importantly, is hazardous to the user. Continuous usage of the generator causes its various components to get heated up. Voltage Regulator Certain engines can also operate on a dual feed of both diesel and gas in a bi-fuel operation mode. (c) Cast Iron Sleeve (CIS) in Engine Cylinder – The CIS is a lining in the cylinder of the engine. Raw/fresh water is sometimes used as a coolant for generators, but these are mostly limited to specific situations like small generators in city applications or very large units over 2250 kW and above. Hydrogen removes heat from the generator and transfers it through a heat exchanger into a secondary cooling circuit that contains de-mineralized water as a coolant. Follow the links to apply your knowledge of how a turbine generator works using each of these forces: Wind Energy, Solar Energy, Hydro Energy, Steam Energy. A number of high power thyristors rectify the AC current to produce a DC current which feeds to the rotor through slip rings. As stated before, the mechanical energy needed to make the generator work can come from several different forces. The rotor in a turbine generator could be attached to a set of wind turbine blades, a set of reaction or impulse steam turbine blades, hydro-turbine blades, or a gas engine. (b) Engine gauges – Different gauges indicate important parameters such as oil pressure, temperature of coolant, battery voltage, engine rotation speed, and duration of operation. Generators are available in different electrical and physical configurations for use in different applications. When wind flows across the blade, the air pressure on one side of the blade decreases. Generators are useful appliances that supply electrical power during a power outage and prevent discontinuity of daily activities or disruption of business operations. The engine can use either, gas, diesel or natural gas (propane) as a source of fuel. The turbine consists of the turbine wheel (1) and the turbine housing (2). Most OHV-engines are equipped with CIS but it is essential to check for this feature in the engine of a generator. Heat recovery system captures exhaust. (3) Attached to the turbine shaft is a coil of copper wire that rotates at the same speed as the turbine shaft and is often referred to as an armature. Since the generator comprises moving parts in its engine, it requires lubrication to ensure durability and smooth operations for a long period of time. The action that forces this movement varies greatly, ranging from hand cranks and steam engines to nuclear fission, but the principle remains the same. It is essential to check the coolant levels of the generator on a daily basis. As one end rotates upward through the magnetic field, the opposite side will be rotating downward, and eventually in a complete circle that is repeated many times. This produces the alternating current (AC) output of the generator. This mechanism can be understood by considering the generator to be analogous to a water pump, which causes the flow of water but does not actually ‘create’ the water flowing through it. Power Generation Modules. In the figure below we see a graphical representation of an an alternating current, where the electrical charge travels back and forth repeatedly between and positive and negative charge: The information above is a brief overview of how a generator works. A home generator uses an internal combustion engine to drive an alternator. You should also consult the local city ordinances to determine whether your generator operation will need to obtain an approval from the local authorities to ensure you are conforming to local laws a protect against fines and other penalties. There are less common varieties with two blades, or with concrete or steel lattice towers. The frame also allows for the generated to be earthed for safety. The latter represents the magnetic field source while the former contains the conductor where the … It work on simple principle the energy from fluid flow turns the three propeller like blade around the rotor which is connected to the main shaft that spin the generator which produces electricity. (iii) By using an exciter – An exciter is a small source of direct current (DC) that energizes the rotor through an assembly of conducting slip rings and brushes. (d) Fuel pump – This transfers fuel from the main storage tank to the day tank. All such installations are subject to the approval of the City Planning Division. Inverter generators serve a number of applications for our portable power customers including, RV power, camping, entertainment sound sets, sporting event vendors, healthcare and elderly care backup operations, mobile restaurants, mobile service providers, sensitive construction environments, and … The alternator, also known as the ‘genhead’, is the part of the generator that produces the electrical output from the mechanical input supplied by the engine. In renewable types of energy, wind, and water, for example, natural forces spin a turbine. The cycle continues till the generator output ramps up to its original full operating capacity. If the float voltage is very high, it will shorten the life of the battery. The rotor generates a moving magnetic field around the stator, which induces a voltage difference between the windings of the stator. When you need quiet, clean energy, an inverter generator is the way to go. The voltage regulator then feeds this DC current to a set of secondary windings in the stator, known as exciter windings. This movement creates a voltage difference between the two ends of the wire or electrical conductor, which in turn causes the electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current. The amount of power produced will depend on … Generators usually output direct current (DC) power, but some have internal power inverters that convert this to alternating current (AC) power. Smaller engines usually operate on gasoline while larger engines run on diesel, liquid propane, propane gas, or natural gas. Giant magnets rotate past copper coils, producing alternating current (AC) by moving electrons. (d) Other controls – Phase selector switch, frequency switch, and engine control switch (manual mode, auto mode) among others. In a turbine generator, a moving fluid—water, steam, combustion gases, or air—pushes a series of blades mounted on a rotor shaft. The mechanism is described below against each component that plays a part in the cyclical process of voltage regulation. The exciter windings are connected to units known as rotating rectifiers. Exhaust fumes emitted by a generator are just like exhaust from any other diesel or gasonline engine and contain highly toxic chemicals that need to be properly managed. The manufacturer of the engine should be consulted to obtain full engine operation specifications and maintenance schedules. Exhaust pipes are usually made of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel. © Generator Source, LLC 1999-2020. (e) Fuel Water Separator / Fuel Filter – This separates water and foreign matter from the liquid fuel to protect other components of the generator from corrosion and contamination. But in 1913, Tesla received a patent for what he described as his most important invention. An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy obtained from an external source into electrical energy as the output. Two of the most common applications of Gas Turbines in modern industries are Turbo Generators and Turbo Compressors. Battery Charger This prompts the voltage regulator into action and the above cycle begins. This rotational energy caused by the high pressured steam turbine is used to generate electricity from an attached generator. If the float voltage is very low, the battery will remain undercharged. It is the job of the turbine housing to guide the exhaust gas (3) into the turbine wheel. The picture below shows the same generator from a different point of view, as if you were looking lengthwise, down through the circular top of the turbine cylinder. Water from the stream is channelled into a pipeline to gain enough head (vertical drop the water falls) to power the system. The DC output voltage of the battery charger is set at 2.33 Volts per cell, which is the precise float voltage for lead acid batteries. AC current is generated by an electrical AC generator operating on the electromagnetic induction (EMI) principle. Some of these are mentioned below. We respect your privacy & you may unsubscribe at any time. This process makes use of a natural resource (water) and does not involve the combustion of any fossil fuels. Common sources used to supply a generator with mechanical energy are: The fuels used to supply these forces are: The generator pictured above is a small and cylindrical turbine generator with an outer casing made of steel. (c) Brushless Design – An alternator that does not use brushes requires less maintenance and also produces cleaner power. (a) Cooling System (a) Type of Fuel Used – Generator engines operate on a variety of fuels such as diesel, gasoline, propane (in liquefied or gaseous form), or natural gas. The generator should be placed in an open and ventilated area that has adequate supply of fresh air. The generator’s engine is lubricated by oil stored in a pump. The exhaust pipe terminates outdoors and leads away from doors, windows and other openings to the house or building. Plastic housings get deformed with time and cause the moving parts of the alternator to be exposed. It followed earlier attempts at making an air engine but was probably the first put to practical use when, in 1818, an engine built by Stirling was employed pumping water in a quarry. The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational for 6 to 8 hours on an average. (b) Exhaust System Hydrogen is sometimes used as a coolant for the stator windings of large generator units since it is more efficient at absorbing heat than other coolants. Faraday discovered that the above flow of electric charges could be induced by moving an electrical conductor, such as a wire that contains electric charges, in a magnetic field. The size of the alternator will vary and can be anything from around 10KW up to 40KW or more. Each different force will eventually create a rotating force within the turbine generator. A generator is simply a device that moves a magnet near a wire to create a steady flow of electrons. They are also fully automatic and do not require any adjustments to be made or any settings to be changed. It contains an assembly of stationary and moving parts encased in a housing. It contains a set of electrical conductors wound in coils over an iron core. • User-friendly in operations (6) Finally, the electricity produced can be extracted from the generator. In this article and the video below, you are going to learn what a Gas Turbine is and how it works in a very easy-to-follow format. The following article provides further details regarding the generator control panel. Wind turbine blades rotate when hit by the wind. The battery charger has an isolated DC voltage output that does interfere with the normal functioning of the generator. • Simpler operation mechanism The prime mover can be a steam turbine, a gas turbine, a wind turbine, or a hydro turbine. Battery chargers are usually made of stainless steel to prevent corrosion. Follow the links to apply your knowledge of how a turbine generator works using each of these forces: Wind Energy , Solar Energy , Hydro Energy , Steam Energy . The inverter circuit of this generator can convert any amount of DC power be it 20 volts or 100 volts to 120-volt 60Hz AC power. So that is why the inverter generators … A steam turbine generator works by heating water to extremely high temperatures until it is converted into steam, then the steam energy is used to rotate the blades of a turbine to create mechanical or rotational energy. The energy for rotation of the rotor is from a rotating turbine or an Internal Combustion engine. I try to approach a Gas Turbo Generator (GTG) to better feel the subject. Its basic parts are a stator and a rotor. The steart function of a generator is battery-operated. A generator consists of a stationary magnetic field (stator) in which a rotating electromagnet (armature) spins to produce electrical current. A wind turbine turns wind energy into electricity using the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades, which work like an airplane wing or helicopter rotor blade. The battery charger keeps the generator battery charged by supplying it with a precise ‘float’ voltage. 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