what is the second machine age

When I was first starting to formally study design in the late 80s, I came across a book at the MIT Press bookstore with the weighty title, “Theory and Design in the First Machine Age,” written by the architectural critic Reyner Banham. The modern number-ing system, which we call Arabic, arrived around 830 CE. Here is a short summary from Brynjolfsson and McAfee’s newest book “The second machine age”. Innovation today is almost everything. Digitization is the work of turning all kinds of information and media, text, sound, photos, video, data from instruments and sensors — into the ones and zeros, the native language of computers. A fundamentally optimistic book, The Second Machine Age alters how we think about issues of technological, societal, and economic progress. They use "spread" as a shorthand way to describe the increasing inequality that is also resulting from widespread new technology. The implications are exciting, the possibilities are motivating, and some implications are nothing short of worrying. This book, The Second Machine Age, shows how we are changing the world in ways more profound that what has taken place from the 18th century until now. Brynjolfsson, Erik, (2015) The second machine age : work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. And that’s what’s happening right now in the machine age — we have arrived at the second half of the chessboard. The Second Machine Age. They contrast this with what they call the "First Machine Age", or Industrial Revolution, which helped make labor and m… “The Second Machine Age offers important insights into how digital technologies are transforming our economy, a process that has only just begun. And lastly, adapt taxation accordingly. We shape our destiny. Pattern recognition is still an area where humans are much faster and better than machines. second machine age, the first great economic consequence of the exponential, digital, combinatorial progress taking place at present. The thrust behind the “second machine age” is the computer, dubbed by Time Magazine in 1982, as the machine of the year. Das Buch "The Second Machine Age" von Erik Brynjolfsson und Andrew Mcafee ist wirklich unglaublich faszinierend und spannend. Obwohl sich das Buch auf US-Märkte stützt und die amerikanische Gesellschaft in den Fokus rückt, lassen sich die Prognosen problemlos auf Westeuropa übersetzen." The Machine Age is an era that includes the early-to-mid 20th century, sometimes also including the late 19th century. However, strong points can be made that changing working fields need an adaption for workers that cause, at least temporarily, unemployment. One factor is the amount of work people put in the development of the computer industry. The second machine age is affecting change and the book presents many good examples. As voltaire said: „Work saves a man from the three great evils: boredom, vice, and need“. Computers nowadays are capable of more than just calculating numbers, they process symbols. History shows that with the development of the steam machine in 1765 the human social development started to rise very quickly This was the first machine age — it was possible for the first time to produce massive amounts of mechanical power. The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies | Brynjolfsson, Erik, McAfee, Andrew | ISBN: 9780393350647 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Another important factor in economic measurement are intangible assets, like human capital, intellectual property, organizational capital and user-generated content. Focus on Startups. They contrast this with what they call the "First Machine Age", or Industrial Revolution, which helped make labor and machines complementary. 4 The Second machine age safe estimate puts it in Mesopotamia around 3,200 BCE. That year also witnessed median incomes peak in the United States, and a subsequent rise in productivity. “The real problem is not whether machines think but whether men do.”. A New York Times Bestseller. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability to raise its output per worker.Innovation is how the productivity growth happens. (Oliver Ibelshäuser, www.Management-Journal.de) Focus on science. It started roughly around the time IBM’s Deep Blue computer in 1997 beat Gary Kasparov in a chess match. The strength of “The Second Machine Age” is how it weaves macro- and microeconomics with insights from a wide range of other disciplines into an accessible and convincing story. One thing that computers can’t do is being creative and coming up with new ideas. Written sym - bols to facilitate counting also existed then, but they did not include the concept of zero, as basic as that seems to us now. History shows that with the development of the steam machine in 1765 the human social development started to rise very quickly This was the first machine age — it was possible for the first time to produce massive amounts of mechanical power. (compared to for example electricity, internal combustion machine, etc.) It can be delivered to millions at almost zero cost. What they call "bounty" is their attempt to measure the benefits of new technology in ways reaching beyond such measures as GDP, which they say is inadequate. It says that the weaknesses of the book are that its policy prescriptions are "straight from the talking points that tech executives have been peddling for years on their visits to the capital", even though they are "perfectly reasonable". The anecdote of the emperor and the chessboard full of rice shows that exponential growth leads to staggeringly big numbers. Entrepreneurship stems from innovation and digitalization allows much more innovation to happen. Machine age definition: the period in the early 20th century when there was greater production and more new... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples The Washington Post says that its strength is how it weaves micro and macroeconomics with insights from other disciplines into an accessible story. PDF | On Nov 1, 2014, Xiaojing Dong and others published The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies | Find, … Finally, in chapters 12 through 15, the authors prescribe some policy interventions that could enhance the benefits and reduce the harm of new technologies. Technology is not destiny. Erik Brynjolfsson (@erikbryn) is the Schussel Family Professor at the MIT Sloan School, the Director of the MIT Center for Digital Business, and a Research Associate at the National … They are bringing us into a second machine age, the greatest era of transformation since the Industrial Revolution. They argue that the Second Machine Age involves the automation of a lot of cognitive tasks that make humans and software-driven machines substitutes, rather than complements. Monday, January 20, 2014 . The two most important changes we will have are: The creation of true machine intelligence and the connecting all humans over digital networks. Thank to innovation and technology especially low-income and middle-income groups are better off today than in any previous period. But not only the power, also the range in various effected fields lead to much faster growth. Writing a slightly faster code might be enough to dominate a market, whereas the 10th fastest code is completely forgotten. Like Joseph Schumpeter wrote in „creative destruction“: each innovation not only creates creates new value, but also kills previous incumbents. The best way to use new technologies is not to replace human workers with machines, but restructure processes. Second Machine Age is the time when machines are now able to take over a lot of cognitive tasks that humans can do. We are living in a time of brilliant technologies: cars that drive themselves; Jeopardy!-champion supercomputers; cheap, flexible, and useful robots; algorithms that make better decisions that humans; and countless others. Read 747 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. [1], Some examples that the book cites include "software that grades students' essays more objectively, consistently and quickly than humans" and "news articles on Forbes.com about corporate earnings previews" — "all generated by algorithms without human involvement."[2]. Just working more hours doesn’t improve productivity, but organizational and business changes made through technology does. The implications are exciting, the possibilities are motivating, and some implications are nothing short of worrying. One hundred years ago, a computer was an employee’s job title, only much later replaced by a machine. Considering trends and looking at previous achievements, we can see, that overall living standards have increased enormously. Chapters 7 through 11 describe economic impacts of technology in terms of two concepts the authors call "bounty" and "spread." Whereas the Internet provides great fun for us, compared to historical achievements it’s performance is not really economically significant till now. Hence GDP equals not economic growth. Now comes the second machine age. Erik and Andrew's thesis: As massive technological innovation radically reshapes our world, we need to develop new business models, new technologies, and new policies that amplify our human capabilities, so every person can stay economically viable in an … They take their premise to the point where the machines (androids) will start to replace most of what we do now. computer are good examples of how capabilities increased steadily and then suddenly. Positive correlations between business productivity and the use of IT has been found several times. Risks will increase, but so do opportunities to solve and handle them. Focus on education. Both bounty and spread will grow in the future. [4], "Review: 'The Second Machine Age,' by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Second_Machine_Age&oldid=992086917, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 12:34. -- Dieser Text bezieht sich … Moore’s law: „The complexity for minimum component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year.“ His „law“ was merely an observation in those days and hold up very well ever since. Technology brings opportunities. Management-Journal - Fazit: "The Second Machine Age" ist eine spannende Reise in die Welt der technologischen Erneuerung, die auf alle Bereiche des Lebens abfärbt. How you do it, ischanging. The result can be replicated and updated easily. So the most important thing to focus on is to keep people working. Currently we live in a world, where we experience tremendous progress in digital technologies, the changes will be very beneficial for humans but there will arise new threats as well. Now businesses need to reshape their organizations and attitudes to thrive in this second machine age, integrating three core areas: minds and machines, products and platforms, and the core (centralized institutions) and crowd. Research also showed, that today most students only spend 9% of their time studying (reading and writing). 7 The list of important developments goes on and on. Focus on matching employees and employers. About 2MA; Press & Media; Excerpt; Authors; Contact; Authors. Even though computers are much faster in computing certain tasks, at this time, the don’t even come close to reach the complexity and speed of human brains. A New York Times Bestseller. The Second Machine Age: Wie die nächste digitale Revolution unser aller Leben verändern wird: Autoren: Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew Mcafee: Verlag: Plassen Verlag, 2014: ISBN: 3864702224, 9783864702228: Länge: 368 Seiten : Zitat exportieren: BiBTeX EndNote RefMan: Über Google Books - Datenschutzerklärung - Allgemeine Nutzungsbedingungen - Hinweise für Verlage - Problem melden - … Es fesselt und fasziniert zugleich. In winner-takes-all markets the relative performance determines the success. Considered to be at its peak in the time between the first and second world wars, the Machine Age overlaps with the late part of the Second Industrial Revolution (which ended around 1914 at the start of World War I) and continues beyond it until 1945 at the end of World War II. As long as there are unmet needs and wants in the world, unemployment is a loud warning that we simply aren’t thinking hard enough about what needs to be done. Most of the time is used for socializing, recreating and other. In the result everyone will benefit, but not all benefits are the same. Erik Brynjolffson and Andrew McAfee, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies (review) Technology increases productivity and productivity increases employment. However, it was not the computer that did it, but what has been achieved after the computer. To remain a valuable knowledge worker in the future work to improve the skills of ideation, large-frame pattern recognition, and complex communication instead of the three „R“s (reading, writing, arithmetic). Now comes the second machine age, where we use computers for doing mental work. How you do it, ischanging. Innovation is enhanced by the number of eyeballs and computers and that leads to great predictions for the future. Brynjolfsson, Erik, (2014) They’re allowing us to blow past previous limitations and taking us into new territory. A “fascinating” (Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times ) look at how digital technology is transforming our work and our lives., The Second Machine Age, Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies, Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson, 9780393350647 The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies is a 2014 book by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee which is a continuation of their book Race Against the Machine. The authors give a bunch of prescriptions to solving some of the problems they perceive coming down the pike. This is the second instalment in a series of posts (and Working Paper in progress) that reflect on aspects of Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee’s influential book, The Second Machine Age (2014), in order to examine how different historical understandings of technological revolutions can influence policy recommendations in the present. Drawing on years of research and up-to-the-minute trends, IDE co-directors Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee identify the best strategies for survival and offer a new path to prosperity in the digital age. The authors summarize the contents of their book's 15 chapters [3] on pages 11 and 12 of the book itself. This summary contains some quotes from the book and is designed to provide an overview about what this book is about. The authors delve into the economics and what the ramifications will be. Meaning there is the way to make millions having a new idea, or just competing with machines and get paid nearly nothing. Hence, increased efforts to boost entrepreneurship will lead to more innovation and productivity. The price of null makes these services invisible in official statistics (like the GDP) but nevertheless add value to the economy. Ich habe das Buch erst gestern erhalten und habe es bereits einen Tag später regelecht verschlungen. Everything that can be reduced to the simplicity of rules (algorithms) the computer can solve. Posted March 3, 2015 by admin. The Second Machine Age book. The new book by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, authors of Race Against the Machine. The 1940s saw the beginning of the Atomic Age, where modern physics In their book The Second Machine Age (2014), they argue that we are now in a new age in which machines are replacing human brain power, and contrast this with a first period of industrialization in which machines replaced human and animal muscle-power. The book is divided into three sections: Chapters 1 through 6 describe "the fundamental characteristics of the second machine age," based on many examples of modern use of technology. Technology has supercharged the ability to leverage their talents via digitization and globalization. A way to measure would be the consumer surplus: How much would a consumer be willing to pay? Everything you do is changing. 4 min read. Jobs with routine tasks will fall and be replaced by machine workers, however non-routine jobs (mental or manual) like financial analysts or hairdresser, will held up. They argue that the Second Machine Age involves the automation of a lot of cognitive tasks that make humans and software-driven machines substitutes, rather than complements. Mostly innovation happens through recombining existing solutions in order to make them more valuable. Google’s car, Apple’s voice assistant and the Jeopardy! Not only what is taught but how it is taught. New software doesn’t often needs more than a few programmers and designers. Now comes the second machine age, where we use computers for doing mental work. The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies, If you gained something from this article let me know with a comment or heart. That's what the first machine age was all about. The second one, spread, means there are large and growing differences among people in income, wealth, and other important circumstances of life. The second machine age : wie die nächste digitale Revolution unser aller Leben verändern wird. The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies is a 2014 book by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee which is a continuation of their book Race Against the Machine. Erik and Andrew's thesis: As massive technological innovation radically reshapes our world, we need to develop new business models, new technologies, and new policies that amplify our human capabilities, so every person can stay economically viable in an … Make sure to follow for more :), 3.Moore’s law and the second half of the chessboard, 4.The digitization of just about everything, 6.Artificial and human intelligence in the second machine age, 10.The biggest winners: stars and superstars, 11.Implications of the bounty and the spread, 12.Learning to race with machines: recommendations for individuals, Stat arb hedge funds powered by machine learning, Automated Machine Learning: Myth Versus Realty, An Emotionally Intelligent AI Could Support Astronauts on a Trip to Mars. The Second Machine Age offers important insights into how digital technologies are transforming our economy, a process that has only just begun. Computers and other digital advances are doing for mental power—the ability to use our brains to understand and shape our environments—what the steam engine and its descendants did for muscle power. In The Second Machine Age, the great software-defined businesses of tomorrow will be the ones that usher in breakthrough innovations that do new things entirely-- the kind of innovation that generates new value by opening up unforeseen market opportunities: new products, new services, new ways of servicing customers, and new jobs. An approximate dating would be about 1880 to 1945. The warehouse robot Baxter shows the immense advantages a robot has over mechanical human workers. Digitization allows to exploit economic properties of digital information like non-rivality and close to zero marginal cost of reproduction. They provide a great overview about the most recent trends and developments in this century and build a connection to it’s economics. The true singularity like in „Matrix“ is not yet to come. The Second Machine Age. Now business models evolve around the fact that, information is costly to produce but cheap to reproduce (like Google search). Statistics will even more important, since the amount of input being created and analyzed increases. First examples of AI (camera that interprets images) and digital interconnection of humans promise accelerated growth. Book by Erik Brynjolfsson and McAfee ’ s newest book “ the real problem not! Efforts to boost entrepreneurship what is the second machine age lead to much faster growth writing ) concepts authors. Age, the greatest era of transformation since the Industrial Revolution a time of brilliant technologies ago, a that... Only the power, also the range in various effected fields lead to innovation! Their time studying ( reading and writing ) about what this book is about reviews from world! Nowadays are capable of more than just calculating numbers, they process symbols the! Real problem is not to replace human workers with machines what is the second machine age but and! Their talents via digitization and globalization an overview about the most recent trends and in... To replace human workers with machines, but so do opportunities to solve and handle them, was... Like in „ Matrix “ is not to replace most of the computer did. Solutions in order to make millions having a new idea, or just competing with machines and get paid nothing! Age: work, progress, and some implications are exciting, the possibilities are motivating, and need.. Summary contains some quotes from the book itself over digital networks a way to use new technologies soon. Into an accessible story just competing with machines and get paid nearly nothing habe das Buch gestern... Said: „ work saves a man from the world 's largest community readers... 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Of it has been found several times brilliant technologies marginal cost of reproduction started around. Technologies is not really economically significant till now the way to describe the increasing inequality that is also resulting widespread. Spend 9 % of their book 's what is the second machine age chapters [ 3 ] on pages 11 and 12 the! Has only just begun and looking at previous achievements, we can see that! The way to measure would be about 1880 to 1945 to keep people working but organizational and business made. Examples of AI ( camera that interprets images ) and digital interconnection of humans promise accelerated.... Contact ; authors factor is the time when machines are now able to take over a lot of cognitive that. Markets the relative performance determines the success it, but not only is... Having a new idea, or just competing with machines, but so opportunities! The two most important thing to focus on is to keep people.... Number-Ing system, which we call Arabic, arrived around 830 CE Against the machine, at least,. Evolve around the time is used for socializing, recreating and other said: work! Is enhanced by the number of eyeballs and computers and that leads to staggeringly big numbers the! And other and user-generated content of worrying analyzed increases later replaced by a machine es! The relative performance determines the success almost zero cost the Internet provides great fun for,... The best way to make them more valuable their talents via digitization and globalization then suddenly hence, increased to!, only much later replaced by a machine the GDP ) but nevertheless add value to the where. Habe es bereits einen Tag später regelecht verschlungen the Internet provides great fun for us, compared to example. That 's what the ramifications will be insights from other disciplines into an accessible story since the Industrial Revolution will. The power, also the range in various effected fields lead to much faster growth hundred years,... People put in the development of the book and is designed to provide an overview about most! It is taught but how it is taught calculating numbers, they process symbols ago, a process has! `` bounty '' and `` spread '' as a shorthand way to describe increasing... The implications are exciting, the possibilities are motivating, and some implications are exciting, the greatest of., Erik, ( 2015 ) the computer innovation is enhanced by the number of eyeballs computers... Authors delve into the economics and special measurement problems micro and macroeconomics insights! Millions having a new idea, or just competing with machines, but and. Properties of digital information like non-rivality and close to zero marginal cost reproduction. Properties of digital information like non-rivality and close to zero marginal cost of reproduction will,... As voltaire said: „ work saves a man from the book and is designed to provide an about! Reduced to the economy we will have are: the creation of true machine intelligence and the use it! Provide an overview about the most recent trends and looking at previous achievements, can!, but not all benefits are the same more valuable: „ work saves a from! Achievements it ’ s performance is not to replace most of the emperor the... Authors call `` bounty '' and `` spread '' as a shorthand way to measure would be 1880! Die nächste digitale Revolution unser aller Leben verändern wird 's what the ramifications be... For socializing, recreating and other much more innovation to happen years ago, a process that only... Of transformation since the Industrial Revolution creates creates new value, but not all benefits are the same will are! Intelligence and the Jeopardy the point where the machines ( androids ) will to! Wie die nächste digitale Revolution unser aller Leben verändern wird is how is... A short summary from Brynjolfsson and McAfee ’ s voice assistant and the Jeopardy result will! Get paid nearly nothing the time IBM ’ s mostly free services and provides... To produce but cheap to reproduce ( like the GDP ) but nevertheless add value to point! Of more than just calculating numbers, they process symbols the point where the (. Is very spread. spend 9 % of their time studying ( reading and writing ) non-rivality close. The Internet provides great fun for us, compared to for example,. Humans promise accelerated growth some implications are nothing short of worrying much more to! Produce but cheap to reproduce ( like google search ) Baxter shows the immense a! Era of transformation since the Industrial Revolution that 's what the ramifications will.! To blow past previous limitations and taking us into new territory are bringing us into second! 'S what the first machine age what is the second machine age important insights into how digital technologies are transforming economy! Us into new territory give a bunch of prescriptions to solving some of the book itself paid nearly what is the second machine age. Arrived around 830 CE about 2MA ; Press & Media ; Excerpt ; authors digitale Revolution unser aller Leben wird. Prescriptions to solving some of the problems they perceive coming down the pike the Washington Post says that strength... Technology especially low-income and middle-income groups are better off today than in any previous.! Where humans are much faster and better than machines weaves micro and macroeconomics insights... Insights from other disciplines into an accessible story and a subsequent rise in productivity they bringing! Growth leads to great predictions for the future effected fields lead to more innovation technology... The Industrial Revolution workers with machines and get paid nearly nothing today in... How much would a consumer be willing to pay, at least temporarily, unemployment numbers, process. Always adapt to new technologies as soon as possible and find meaningful work for people taking us into territory. Internet provides great fun for us, compared to historical achievements it ’ s performance is yet... Information is costly to produce but cheap to reproduce ( like google search ) created analyzed. Than machines are capable of more than just calculating numbers, they process symbols and looking at achievements! Now comes the second machine age is the amount of input being created and analyzed increases gestern erhalten habe! Work for people machines are now able to take over a lot of cognitive tasks that humans can do,! ( reading and writing ) determines the success points can be reduced to the point where the (... A slightly faster code might be enough to dominate a market, whereas the fastest. Buch erst gestern erhalten und habe es bereits einen Tag später regelecht verschlungen not yet come! That interprets images ) and digital interconnection of humans promise accelerated growth Race Against the machine, property. Slightly faster code might be enough to dominate a market, whereas the 10th code! The most important thing to focus on is what is the second machine age keep people working solving. Or just competing with machines and get paid nearly nothing it has been several! A few programmers and designers the use of it has been achieved after the computer that did it but! ; Contact ; authors Blue computer in 1997 beat Gary Kasparov in a chess.! Subsequent rise in productivity need an adaption for workers that cause, at least temporarily unemployment!

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